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unabated until his death. A hst of his works printed during his Hfetime is found in Kehrein's " Lexicon der kath. Dichter. Volks- und Jugendschriftsteller im 19ten Jahrhundert" (1872), I, 13, and a complete list of his posthumous works in the "AUgemeine deutsche Biographie", XL VI, 232 sqq.

Heindle, Repertorium der Padagogik, I. 34,


Baiideau, Nicolas, Regular Canon and economist, b. at Amboise, France, 25 April, 1730; d. in 1792. He became a religious of the Abbey of Chancelade, near P^rigueux, and taught theologj' there for some time. It was there that he WTOte his "Analyse de I'ouvrage du pape Benoit XIV sur les beatifications et canonisations" (Paris, 1759), which was examined and approved by the pope himself. It is found in Migne's "Theologise Cursus Completus" (torn. III). He was called to Paris by the Archbishop de Beau- mont and there he gave all his time to the study of economics. In 1765 he fovmded a periodical "Les Eph^m^rides du citoyen " in which he attacked the principles of Quesnay and of the physiocratical school. Soon after, he accepted and defended these principles and became one of their most notable supporters. In 1771 he published his most important work, " Premiere introduction a la philosophic economique ", in which he expounds the doctrines of the physiocrat- ical school. There are two great economic factors, nature and art; and there are three kinds of art, fecund or productive, which consists in helping nature to gi\e the most abundant production possible (hunting, fishing, breeding, agriculture, etc.); sterile or non-productive, which gives to these productions a more useful or pleasing form (industry, commerce, etc.); social art, which gives the knowledge, pro- tection, and means necessarj' for the exercise of the productive and non-productive arts (instruction, religious worship, protection, administration). Pro- ductive art is the most important.

When he died he had lost the use of his faculties. Besides the works already mentioned, he wrote "Idees d'un citoyen sur I'administration des finances du roi" (1763); "Idees d'un citoyen sur les besoins, les droits, et les devoirs des \Tais pauvres" (1765); "Lettressurles^meutespopulaires" (1768); "Lettres d'un citoyen sur les vingtiemes et autres impots" (1768); "Principes economiques de Louis XII et du Cardinal d'Amboise, de Henri IV, et du_duc de Sully sur I'administration des finances" (1775); "Charles V, Louis XII, et Henri IV aux Franjais" (1787).

JIiGNE, TheologiiF Cursus Completus, III; Espinas, Histoire lies doctrines economiques; Daire, CoUecticn des principaux t'conomistes.

G. M. Satjvage.

Baudouin, Michel, Indian missionary, b. in Quebec, Canada, 8 March, 1692, entered the Society of Jesiis in France at the age of twenty-one, arrived in Louisi- ana (on his return to America) in 1728; d. at New Orleans in, or after, 1768. Shortly after his arrival in Louisiana, he was sent to the Choctaw Mission, where he laboured for eighteen years. When he was on the eve of deriving some fruit from his labours, he was recalled by his superior to New Orleans, owing to the disturbances excited by the English among the In- dians and the dangers to which he was exposed. He was Superior-General of the Louisiana Mission from 1749 until the expulsion of the Jesuits from that colony in 1763. When that untoward event took place. Father Baudouin was not banished from the countrj' as his fellow Jesuits were, but with a pension of three or four hundred francs was allowed to re- main in the colony, a planter having offered the aged priest a home on his estate.

THWAITE3. Jesuit Relations. Index Vol. LXXII. 78, where full references are given; Kip, Early Jesuit Missions in North America (London, 1847), 11.

Edward P. Spillane.

Baumgartner, G.allus Jacob, a Swiss states- man, b. IS October, 1797, at Altstatten, Switzerland; d. 12 July, 1869, at St. Gallen. After attending the gymnasium at St. Gallen he studied law at Fribourg, Switzerland, and at Vienna. From 1817 to 1819 he was a tutor in Himgarj'. Returning to Vienna in 1819, he was arrested there after the murder of Kotzebue by Sand on the false suspicion of belonging to a Swiss political society and was expelled from the city in 1820. He began his political career as keeper of the archives of his native canton, St. Gallen. Tliis position gave him the opportunity of learning the topography, historj'. laws, and legal relations of the canton. In 1822 he was made official secretary; in 1825 he became a member of the great council of the canton and was appointed chancellor.

On account of his knowledge of business he was selected, in 1831, for the position of Landartimann, or chief magistrate of the canton, and held the office until 1846. During his administration he bent all liis energies to making a closely united republic out of the loosely connected cantons, and to impro%-ing the Swiss roads and water-ways. Appointed a dele- gate, at this time, to the diet at Lucerne he endeav- oured at the diet to bring about a reorganization of the confederation. He wished to create a \-igorous, organically united republic similar to that of the United States, retaining at the same time a large amount of independence for the individual cantons. Baumgartner's chief opponents in carrjing out this project were the Catholic clergj', for he aimed to separate the Church entirely from Rome and to place it under the control of the State. He was largely influenced by " Josephinism " and by the ideas of Wessenberg.

In 1832, at liis suggestion, the Bishopric of Chur was dissolved. In 1834, at the so-called Assembly of Baden, he gave expression to his views in the mo- tions he introduced. These were, that ecclesiastical administration of law be placed under the control of the State, that it should have direction of the educa- tion of the clergy, that the ecclesiastical right of patronage should be limited and that the privileges of the religious orders should be revoked. When his political friends in 1841 dissolved the monastic houses of Aargau by force, plundered them, and drove their inmates away, he saw to what his Church poUcy would lead. Soon after this he changed his opinions and came over to the side of his former opponents. On this account he had to retire from his position as Landammann. In 1845 he again entered the diet as representative of the CathoUc Peoples' party, but after two years was forced out by the victorv of the Liberals. He now urged the views of the Catholic Church in the press and in popular assemblies. He was once more a member of the Swiss federal assembly, 1857-60, and became again Landammann but was overthrown in 1864.

The present political organization, well-ordered administration, and material prosperity of the canton of St. Gallen are due to Baumgartner's public labours; the CathoUc Church owes to him especially the founding of the Bishopric of St. Gallen. Besides all tills he prepared the way for the later development of Switzerland in the outline of a new constitution for the confederation which he drew up. After his defeat in 1864, Baumgartner withdrew altogether from public Ufe and devoted himself to the study of the history of liis native canton. The results of liis researches appeared in two works issued by him: '■ Die Schweiz in ihren Kanipfen und Umgestaltun- gen von 1830-1850" (4 vols.. Zurich, 1853, 1866), and ■' Geschichte des schweizerischen Freistaats und Kantons St. Gallen" (2 vols., Zurich, 1868). A third volume of the history was prepared by his son, Alexander, from the papers Baumgartner left at his death, and issued at Einsiedeln in 1890. A biog-