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raphy of Baumgartner giving full detail of liis life has been published by his son under the title: "Gallus Jakob Baumgartner und die neuere Staatsentwick- lung der Schweiz" (Freiburg, Baden, 1892).

Patricius Schlager.

Baunard, Louis, educator, b. at Bellegarde (Loiret), France, in 1828. He was one of the clergy of Orleans, until 1877, after which he was attached to the Catholic University of Lille, first as professor, and later as rector. No Catholic university profited more by the Law of 1875 that granted freedom of higher "education. The transfer of the State Uni- versity from Douai to Lille did not retard the prog- ress of the Catholic institution. Guided by its zealous rector, and supported by the active charity of the manufacturers of Northern France, the Uni- versity of Lille has graduated a great number of Catholic physicians, lawyers, and business men. Many young priests also have been prepared at Lille' for the career of teaching, which they have since followed as professors in the petits semi/iaires and boarding schools. Technical courses exist for those who intend to devote themselves to manu- facturing industries; a department of economics and the social sciences was established through the efforts of M. Duthoit for the development of the social principles of Catholicism; finally the "'uni- versity extension", a sort of popular circulating university, provides for lectures by the university professors in all the industrial centres of Northern France.

ilgr. Baunard received the degree of Doctor of Letters, in 1860; in the two theses which he wrote he treated of the pedagogj- of Plato and of Theodulphus, Bishop of Orleans in the time of Charlemagne; both works wliich marked the beginning of a literary activ- itv surpassed bv few. As hagiographer he wrote on St. John the Apostle (1869) and St. Ambrose (1871). ile wrote the biographies of Louise de Marillac, the foundress of the Daughters of Charity (1898); of Madame Barat (1876), foundress of the Ladies of the Sacred Heart; of Vicomte Armand de Melun (1880), Cardinal Pie, Bishop of Poitiers (1886), General de Sonis (1890, his most successful work), Cardinal Lavigerie (1896), M. Ernest Lelievre, founder of the Little Sisters of the Poor (1905), and M. Vrau, the great Christian manufacturer (1906). The French religious history of the nineteenth century was summarized by him in "Un siecle de I'Eglise de France" (1901). He contributed notable works of religious psychologj' in his celebrated books, "Le doute et .ses victimes" (1865), in which the pages on Jouffroy were both new and surprising, and "La foi et ses victoircs" (1881-83). Whatever his sub- ject, Mgr. Baunard was always an "awakener of souls" by reason of his delicate literary conscien- tiousness and his admirable fecundity. His "Es- p^rance" (1892) throws much light on the begiimings of the contemporary religious revival among in- telligent Frenchmen; his "L'evangile du pauvre" (1905) appeared opportunely during a period of social unrest. As university rector, Mgr. Baunard occupies a foremost place in the history of the Catho- lic university movement; as author, ha collected much important material for the religious history of modern France.

Georges Goyau.

Bauny, Etiexxe, theologian, b. in 1564 at Mou- zon, Ardennes, France; d. 3 December, 1649, at Saint Pol do L6on. He was admitted into the Society of Jesus. 20 July, 1,593, and after teaching humanities and rhetoric he was promoted to the chair of moral theologj' which he occupied for sixteen years. He was for a time superior of the Jesuit residence at Pontoise. So high was his reputation for learning and holiness, that he had the confidence of the most

distinguished prelates of his age, especially of Fran- cois Cardinal de la Rochefoucauld, who chose him as his spiritual director, and of Rene de Rieux, Bishop of Leon, who entrusted to him the settle- ment of the most delicate affairs of his episcopate. Bauny's knowledge of moral theology was singu- larly profound, but he was in many points too lenient. His undue indulgence excited the Phari- saical indignation of the Jansenists, and it was to him that Pascal, Arnauld, and others turned, when they accused the Society of Jesus of teaching lax morality. He was a man of extraordinary severity towards himself, a skilful guide of souls, full of charity towards sinners, prudent in the management of affairs; hence we are not surprised to read that he died in the odour of sanctity, almost in the very exercise of his apostolic ministry, at the advanced age of eighty-five.

His published works are: (1) "Constitutiones Synodales dicecesis Leonensis, a Renato de Rieux Episcopo Leonensi promulgatte PauUpoU in Leonia" (Paris, 1630); (2) "Pratique du droit canonique au gouvemement de I'Eglise, correction des moeurs, et distribution des benefices, le tout ati style et usage de France " (Paris, 1634); (3) " De Sacramentis ac Per- sonis Sacris, earumque dignitate, obligationibus ac jure, juxta sacrarum litterarum testimonia, SS. Pa- trum sententias Canonum ac Conciliorum sanctiones, cum summariis, indice duplice, uno tractatuum et quaestionum, rerum altero. Theologiae moralis pars prima" (Paris, 1640)infol.; (4) " Tractatus de cen- suris ecclesiasticis" (Paris, 1642), in fol.; (5) "Nova beneficiorum praxis . . ." (Paris, 1649). The second and tliird of these works are on the Index. .

GuiLHF.RMY, Menologe de la c. de J., Assistance de France, II. 559; HuRTER, Nomendator. I, 494; Sommekvogel, Biblio- thique de la c. de J., I, col. 1058.

T. B. Barrett.

Bausset, Louis-FR.\Nfois de, a French cardinal, writer, and statesman, b. in 1748 at Pondicherj'. where his father held an administrative position; d. in Paris, 1824. He studied in France at the Jesuit "College de la Fleche" and at St. Sulpice. Ordained priest, he became vicar-general at .\ix in 1772; ad- ministrator of Digne, 1778; Bishop of -\lais, in Languedoc, 1784. Although a prominent member of the .\ssembly of Notables of Languedoc in 1786 and in 1788, he was not delegated to the Etats Gtoeraux of 1789. In 1791, Bausset was one of the first bishops who endorsed the "Exposition of Prin- ciples on the Civil Constitution of the Clergy". He declined to take the oath and passed to Switzerland. Returning to France in 1792, he was incarcerated, but set free when Robespierre fell (9 Thermidor). He then retired to ViUemoison, where be began his literarj' career. After the Concordat of 1801 Bausset cheerfully resigned his see into the hands of Pius VII. Ill health prevented his appointment to one of the newly-formed sees, but Napoleon made him a canon of St". Denis (1806) and a member of the Council of the University of France (1808). Under the Resto- ration, he became president of the University Council and peer of the realm (1815); Member of the French Academy (1816); Cardinal (1817), and Minister of State (1821). The valuable library and manuscripts of Bausset were bequeathed to St. Sulpice.

The career of Bausset as educator and statesman deserves no special notice; he was guided by, more than he guided, the policy of the two regimes uniler which he served. From his pen we have, besides several minor writings, " Expose des principes sur le serment ", witli a long introduction by Emery (Paris. 1796); "Notices historiques" on Cardinal Boisgelin (Paris, 1804). on Legris-Duval (Paris. 1820), and on Talleyrand (Paris, 1821); two considerable biogra- phies": " Histoire de Fenelon" (Versailles, 1809; Paris, 1823; ed. Migne. 1826) and "Histoire de J.-B. Bos- suet eveque de Meaux" (Paris, 1814, 1819; Ver-