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sailles, 1821; Besangon, 1847). The original docu- ments concerning Fenelon he had from the Abb6 Emery, Superior of Saint-Sulpice. Bossuet's manu- scripts, not yet purchased by the National Library, lie borrowed from Lamy, a bookseller into whose hands they had fallen. The purity of his style won for Bausset the decennial prize awarded by the Institute of France to the best biography. Still, that very purity often passes into a tiresome sameness which fails to suggest either the winning qualities of Fene- lon's character or the elevation of the Eagle of Meaux. As a historian, Bausset fails in critical acumen and judicial impartiality. His "Histoire de Fenelon" is so much of a panegjTic that, especially in the delicate and intricate question of the Quietist movement, it needs to be supplemented and cor- rected by such works as those of Griveau and of CrousM. It is said that the Histoire de Bossuet " was written as an offset against the partiality which Bausset had shown to Fenelon; if so, Bausset had a strange way of rehabilitating the subject of his second biography, praising Bossuet's Gallicanism as Bossuet himself, tormented in his last years by the " Defensio cleri gallicani ". would not have wished it praised. Brunetiere calls Bausset's " Histoire of Bossuet" "la plus franchement galhcane de toutes". Villeneuve-Bargemont, Notice historiqiie sur le Cardinal Bauaset (Marseilles, 1824); DnssAui.T, Annales KUerairea, (Paris, 1818), t. IV.


Bautain, Louis-EuGi:NE-MARiE, philosopher and theologian, b. at Paris, 17 February, 1796; d. there, 15 October, 1867. After a course at the Ecole Nor- male, where he was influenced by Cousin and Jouf- froy, he became (1819) professor of philosophy at Strasburg. Three years later he took up the study of medicine and finally that of theoloo:j' and was ordained priest (1828). As director of tiie seminary at Strasburg, he at first won distinction by his work in apologetics, especially against atheism and materi- alism. He was chiefly interested, however, in the problem of the relations between faith and reason, concerning which he accepted the views of Fideism and Traditionalism, and reduced to a mmimum the function of rea.son. Divine revelation, he claimed, is the only source of knowledge and certitude. He was consequently obliged to sign (18 November, 1835) six propositions containing the Catholic doctrine on faith and reason. After the examination at Rome of his work, "Philosophie du christianisme" (Paris, 1835), Bautain signed (8 September, 1840) .six other propositions differing but slightly from those of 1835. Finally, in obedience to the Congregation of Bishops and Regulars, he promised (26 April, 1844) not to teach that the existence of God, the .spirituality and immortality of the soul, the principles of meta- physics, and the motives which make revelation credible are beyond the reach of imaided reason. Bautain was appointed Vicar-General of Paris (1850) and taught at the Sorbonne (1853-62). His works include: "De I'enseignement de la philosophic au 19™' si^cle" (Strasburg, 1833); "Psychologic ex- p^rimentale" (ib., 1839); "Philosophie morale" (lb., 1842); "La religion et la hbert6" (Paris, 1848); "La morale de I'Evangile" (ib., 185.5); "La philoso- phie des lois" (ib., 1860); "La Conscience" (ib., 1868).

De Regny, L'abbe Bautain, sa vie et ses aume (Pans, 1884); Bellamy in Diet, de theol. cath.. s. v.; Ingold, LeHrea tne- ditea du P. Rozaren in Bulletin Critique, 5 April, 25 June. 1902. (These letters refer to Bautain's visit to Rome in 1840.) HcR- ter, Nomenelator, III, 999. „

E. A. P.\CE.

Bautista. Fr.^^y Ju.\n, b. at Mexico, 1555; date of death unknown, but probably between 1606 and 1615. He joined the Franciscans in his native city, and taught theologj' and metaphysics at the convent of St. Francis of Mexico. He was also a definitor

of the pro\'ince, and became Guardian of Tezcuco twice (1595 and 1606), of Tlatelolco (1600), and of Tacuba in 1605. Although bom at Mexico, he did not at first care to familiarize liimself with the language of the Mexican Indians who formed the main part of the population among which he had been born and raised. He looked with indifference on the Nahuatl, the language of the so-called .\ztecs. But after joining the Franciscans and becom- ing acquainted with the educational work going on through the Church among the Indians he will- ingly listened to the representations of older mem- bers of the order, and soon acquired a thorough knowledge of the idiom. A number of Ills works are known by title only. Ten of these were written in the Nahuatl language, previous to 1607; several were printed at Mexico.

Mendieta. Historia ecleaidstiea Indiana (finished in 1599 but first published by Ycazbalceta. Mexico. 1870); Juan de ToRQUEMADA, Lo8 veintc y una Libras Ritualea y Monarchia Indiana con el origen y guerraa de las Indioa occidentalea (first ed., Madrid. 1613; 2d ed.. ibid,, 1725); Pinelo, Epitome (2d ed.. Madrid. 1737-58); NicOL.v.s Antonio, Bibtioteca Hia- pana nova (Madrid. 1766). II; Joaquin Garcia CETA, Bibliografia mericana del Siglo XVI (Mexico. 1886).

Ad. F. Bandelier.

Bavaria, The Kingdom of. — I. Political Consti- tution, Area, Population, etc. — The present Kingdom of Bavaria — named after the German tribe called Boiarii — has formed, since 1871, a constituent part of the German Empire. It is an independent State of the confederation with special rights; its rulers belong to the Wittelsbach dynasty, the head of the Government in 1907 being Prince-Regent Luitpold. In time of peace the king or his representative is the head of the army; in time of war the emperor, as head of all the forces, has, by agreement, the con- trol. As the second state (in size) of the empire Bavaria has six representatives in the Federal Council and forty-eight in the Imperial Parliament (Reichstag), the latter deputies being chosen by direct vote. In its present form Bavaria consists of two parts of unequal size, geographically some distance from each other, on either side of the Rhine. It has an area of 29,283 square miles, and a popula- tion (census of 1 December, 1905) of 6,2.54,372 persons. According to individual declaration of belief 4,608,469 persons, or 70 per cent of the population, belong to the Catholic Church; 1,843,123 persons, or 28.3 per cent of the population, are adherents of the Lutheran and Cah-inist confessions; while other re- ligious bodies (Old-Catholics, Ir\-ingites, Mennonites, Methodists, etc.) have but a small follo\\ing. There are in Bavaria 56,000 Jews, living chiefly at Munich, Nuremberg, and Fiirth, who are engaged principally in commercial and industrial pursuits; they form a large proportion of the physicians, lawyers, and judges of the country. Tlie'German population of Bavaria is made up as follows: descendants of the Boiarii, living in I'pper and Lower Bavaria and in the greater part of the Upper Palatinate; Franconi- ans, a mixture of Rhine Franks, Thuringians, and Slavs, found in the region of the Main and the Red- witz; Swabians, living in the province bearing their name; and the inhabitants of the Palatinate, a mixed race of Roman and German blood having their liome on the left bank of the Rhine. The difference of stock is evidenced by the variety of dialects and provincial characteristics. Naturally these distinc- tions are not so marked in the cities.

Outside the Rhenish Palatinate Bavaria is an elevated, hilly country. It is bounded on the soutli by the Alps, on the east by the mountains called the Bohemian Forest (Bolmierwald). and on the north by the range called the Franconian Forest (Franken- wald), while the various ranges called Fichtelgebirge, Spessart, and Rhongebirge represent isolated dis- tricts of larger or smaller extent. The Rhine Palati-