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of liis son, Maximilian Emanuel (1679-1726), con- queror of the Turks, and of his grandson Charles Albert (1726-45) by the wars of the Spanish and Austrian successions. It was not until the reign of the Elector Maximilian (Joseph) III (1745-77) tliat order was again restored. During this reign the Jesuits were suppressed (1773).

Ma.ximilian was the last of the younger branch of the Wittelsbach line. After his death the elder (Palatinate) branch of the familj' succeeded to the tlirone in the person of the art-loving Charles Theo- dore (1778-99), under whom a papal nunciature was estabUshed at Munich (1785). The last years of Charles Theodore were embittered by many misfor- tunes. The young French Republic took from him the territorj' on the other side of the Rhine and he had to endure many humiliations from his subjects. Up to this time Bavaria had been entirely a Catholic country. New conditions arose when Ma.ximilian IV (Joseph) ascended the throne (1799). This ruler was twice married to Protestants; non-Catholics were granted the same political rights as Catholics, and Lutheran services allowed at the capital. The Government proceeded with severity against aU forms of Catholic religious life. The number of churches which were dismantled or profaned at this time is hardly credible; treasures of art of earlier days were sold for a mere pittance or shamefully treated; whole wagonloads of books and documents were burned or thrown into the river; professorial posi- tions filled by avowed opponents of all religions; and an extravagant and fri\'olous luxury became the fasliion at Court. In 1805 Bavaria entered into an alliance with Napoleon against Austria and Russia. In return for this the victorious Corsiean made Bavaria a kingdom (1 January, 1806). As a member of the Rhenish Confederation Maximilian (Joseph) IV fought against Prussia in 1806, against Austria in 1809, and against Russia in 1812. Thirty thousand Bavarian troops died in Russia, victims of the climate or of encounters with the Cossacks. After the battle of Leipzig Bavaria joined the .\llies at the right mo- ment, so that it was able to retain the greater part of its territory. After the chancellor, Count von Mont- gelas, had retired from office (2 February, 1817) efforts were made to restore former conditions and that same year a Concordat, which is stiU operative, was made with the Roman Curia; the next year the king granted a constitution which has produced good results in every respect.

During the reign of the King Louis I (1825-48) the Church prospered greatly; old cathedrals were restored; new churches and monasteries founded; and painters and sculptors came in large numbers to Munich where they found profitable employment. The colossal figure of Bavaria, the Hall of Fame, the Walhalla, the Hall of Freedom, and the basilica of St. Boniface keep alive the memory of Louis I, the greatest ruler in the history of Bavaria. The revolutionary movement of 1848 compelled Louis to abdicate. His son, Maximihan II (1848-64), a well-meaning but weak ruler, did much to further learning, especially in the domain of history; he was not fortunate, however, in the men he selected to fill professorships and on this account lost popularity with his Catholic subjects. His successor, the \ision- ary Louis II (1864-86), ascended the throne at the age of eighteen. The civil war of 1866 obliged Bavaria to make great sacrifices. Four years later the Bavarian army took an honourable part in the Franco-German war, and in 1871 Bavaria tecame a member of the new German Empire. During the reign of Louis II special encouragement was given to architect\ire and industrial art. The growing in.sanity of the king necessitated the appointment of Prince Leopold as "regent of the kingdom", and not long after Louis met his death, in a manner 11.-23

never clearly explained, in the Stambergersee. Ai his brother Otto was mentally incapable of ruling. Luitpold (b. 12 March, 1S21) continued in his office of regent. Bavaria has pro.spered greatly under his wise rule, his great-grandson Luitpold, assures the succession in his line.

III. Introduction of Christianity. — ^The Christian faith was probably first introduced into Bavaria, both on the Danube and on the Rhine, by Roman soldiers and mercliants. [Cf. Huber, "Geschichte der Einfuhrung und Verbreitung des Christenthums in Siidosten Deutsclilands " (jalzburg, 1874-75), 4 vols.; Hefcle, "Geschichte der Ein'iihrung des Christenthums im siidwe-stlichen Deutschland (Tubingen, 1837).] In the earhest ages of the Church Augusta Vindelicorum (Augsburg) was famous on account of the martj-rdom of St. Afra and her com- panions; Ratisbon had also its confessors and the same may be said of Spej'er. But it was not until the end of the German migrations and the establishment of more orderly conditions in the Merovingian- Carlovingian Empire that Christianity took firm root. As is well known, at first Irish, and later Frankish and Anglo-Saxon missionaries sowed the seed of the Gospel in the hearts of the rude warriors whose life until then had been given to fighting, hunting, gambling, and drinking. Among these missionaries were: St. Kilian and his pupils Colonat (Coloman) and Totnan at Wiirzburg; in the Alpgau region St. Magnus; at Ratisbon and Freising St. Rupert, St. Emmeram, and St. Corbinian. Stricter regulations were introduced by Winfrid (St. Boniface) who is in truth entitled to the name of the "Apostle of the Germans". The Dioceses of Freising, Ratis- bon, Passau, Wiirzburg, and Eiclistatt were either established or reorganized, while the founding of monasteries made it possible to train the priesthood properly and to raise the spiritual and moral level of the laity. When Boniface was created Archbishop of Mainz (747) Augsburg and Constance became his suffragans, having previously belonged, respectively, to Aciuileia and Besangon. After Charlemagne had overthrown the native ruling family, the Agilolfings, Pope Leo III erected (798) tne new province of Salz- burg to which Ratisbon, Freising, Passau, and Seben (Brixen) in what is now the TjtoI, were attached. But the first mentioned dioceses together T\ith Neuburg, which in a short time disappeared, were left dependent on Mainz. With some changes of names and boundaries these are stiU in existence. The Diocese of Bamberg, later formed from the existing provinces, was not a suffragan of JIainz but was directly dependent on the Apostolic See. The small Diocese of Chiemsee, founded in 1206, was always dependent on Salzburg; it was suppressed at the beginning of the nineteenth century.

IV. Ecclesiastical Divisions — The present ecclesi- astical divisions of Bavaria rest upon the BuU of Circumscription issued by Pope Pius VII, 1 April, 1818, and made public, 23 September, 1821. Accord- ing to this Bavaria is divided into the two church provinces of Munich-Freising and Bamberg; the first archdiocese has for suffragans Augsburg, Passau, and Ratisbon; the suffragans of the second are Wurz- bwg, Speyer, and Eichstatt. The Ministrj' of the Interior for Worship and Education has charge of the interests of the Crown and State in their relations to the Catholic Church of the country; this ministry is the chief State guardian of the various religious and charitable endowments and is aided therein by the civil authorities of the governmental districts. A court of administration has been in existence since 1878 which has control over various matters relating to religious societies (among others, the religious training of children). Cf. Silbernagl, "Verfassung und Verwaltung siimmtlicher Religionsgenossenschaf- t«n in Bayem" (4th ed. Ratisbon, 1900); Schlecht,