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BAVARIA


356


BAVARIA


' Baycrns Kirch?nprovinzen, ein Veberblick iiber Geschichte und gegenwartigen Bestand der kathol- ischen Kirche im Konigreich Bayern" (Munich, 1902).

The boundaries of the dioceses do not agree ^^^th the boundaries of the pohtical divisions except in the case of Wiirzburg (Loner Francoiiia) and of Speyer (Rhine Palatinate). The Archdiocese of Bamberg extends across Bavaria from Wurtemberg to Bohemia and Sa.xony; the territory of tlie suffragan Diocese of Wiirzburg stretches beyond the boimdaries of tlie country. Eichstatt includes parts of Middle Franconia, the Upper Palatinate, Upper Bavaria, and Swabia. Ratisbon is the largest diocese; it includes not only the greater piirt of the Upper Palatinate but also parts of Upper and Lower Bavaria, as well as Upper Franconia. The Archdiocese of Munich-Freising em- braces besides the greater part of Upper Bavaria a part of Lower Bavaria, chiefly included in the suf- fragan Diocese of Passau. The Diocese of Augsburg includes the whole of Swabia and the western judicial districts of I'pper Bavaria; in the north it extends well into Middle Franconia.

V. Church Statistics. — According to the "Zeit- schrift des koniglichen bayerischen statistischen Bureau"' (1906, nos. 2 and 3) the Catholic population of the various districts was as follows: —

Upper Bavaria 1,299,372

Lower Bavaria 700,118

Rhine Palatinate 391,200

Upper Palatinate and Ratisbon . . 525,933

Upper Franconia 316,545

Middle Franconia 227,119

Lower Franconia 546,962

Swabia and Neuburg 646,220

4,653,469

In the Rhine Palatinate, Upper Franconia, and especially in Middle Franconia the non-Catholic population is decidedly in the majority, namely: Rhine Palatinate, 479,694; Upper Franconia, 362,519; Middle Franconia, 623,546. In Upper Bavaria, Lower Franconia, and Swabia the Protestants num- ber over 100,000 persons, while in the L'pper Palati- nate the figures are hardly half as large. In Lower Bavaria there are not over 10,000 non-Catholics. Rapid growth is reported in the Catholic parishes of Nuremberg (90,000), Augsburg (70,000), Erlangen, Schweinfurt, and Memmingen; the Protestant par- ishes have increased in population in Munich (80,000), Wiirzburg (15,000), Aschaffenburg, Ingolstadt, and Forchheim; while in the Catholic provinces Protestant churches and chapels are rapidly springing up. The same can hardly be said of Catholic churches in the Protestant districts, although more has been done in this direction lately than in former years and a few parishes like Wunsiedel, Hof, and Weissenburg here and there possess creditable churches. The establishment of the Boniface Verein might have proved very helpful in this respect and would have counteracted the efforts of the Gustavus-.\dolphus Verein; but a false respect for King Louis I (founder of the Ludwig-Mission Verein, which is exclusively Bavarian) has, in spite of all efforts, prevented its establishment in the kingdom.

Every diocese has a cathedral chapter which, according to the Concordat, besides choir-service acts as a council for the bishop. These chapters include a provost, dean, a number of canons, and curates. In Munich, besides the chapter there is a collegiate foundation of court preachers (St. Cajetan) similarly organized. At the close of 1904 there were 3,022 parishes served by 3,144 parish priests or curates, and 2,578 vicars and chaplains; there were also 1.985 regular clergy (Benedictines, Franciscans, Carmelites, Capuchins) living in 86 monasteries and hospices. The orders for women had at that date 12,586 mem-


bers in 79 houses and 1,087 dependencies. With a few exceptions the female religious devote themselves to teaching and nursing. There are in Bavaria over 1.000 Protestant parishes with 1,400 pastors and assistant preachers. In 1903 the Catholic Church funds, including real estate, amounted to about §42,500,000; the funds of the Protestant denomina- tions to §5,000,000. As the revenues from the church funds are often not sufficient to keep the church buildings, etc., in repair, a number of cities have decided to impose a church tax, which so far has been moderate. [Cf. Geiger, "Taschenkalender fur den katholischen IClerus (Ratisbon, 1907), as to the sal- aries, pensions, and ranking of the clergj'.]

VI. Education and Charitable Institutions. — The school system consists of public schools, continuation and technical schools, gymnasia with classical courses, Realjumnasia (no Greek), Realschulen (high- schools without Latin and Greek), Oberrealschulcn (gymnasia with no Latin or Greek, which pre- pare for the technical schools), commercial schools, seminaries for teachers, lyceums, 3 universities, a technical high-school, etc. Except in rare cases the primary schools are chiefly denominational. The middle and high-schools are used by all denomina- tions. Religious instruction is provided for these schools as well as for the primary ones. The univer- sities at Munich and Wurzburg have Catholic theo- logical faculties. There is at Munich a seminarj- for the training of priests called the Georgianum and the the provinces have similar institutions, generally in connexion with lyceums. Following the directions of the Council of Trent there are in all the dioceses semi- naries for boys (petils scminaircs) which are intended to prepare youths without means to study in the gym- nasia. In Munich the total number of university instructors is 250; in Wurzburg, 158; in Erlangen. 100; in the technical high-school, 100. In the other institutions the number of teachers is correspondingly smaller.

The attendance of students at Munich is between 5,000 and 6,000; at Wiin:burg, 1,400. The students at the technical high-school number about 3,000; the academy of fine arts and the academy of music have each 300 students. In 1904 the Ij'ceums had aboiit 1,000 matriculated students. Some of the gymnasia, such as that of St, Stephen at Augsburg and those at Metten and Miinnerstadt, are in charge of members of the regular orders (Benedictines and Augustinians). The majority of the profes.sors are, however, lajanen. In Bavaria for various reasons relatively more Protes- tants than Catholics study the higher branches, con- sequently the non-Catholic professors nearly every- where equal in niunber those of the Catholic Faith. This condition of affairs has been somewhat changed by the labours of the Albertus-Magnus Verein as well as by the work of the associations and leagues of Catholic students. Efforts have also been made to increase the niunber of projf/mnasia (without higher classes) in certain Catholic districts; the Protestant districts are better equipped with such schools.

Bavaria is well supplied with institutions for the care of the sick, the crippled, children, and old people. Many of these foundations are largely endowed and date back to the earlier centuries. In the Catholic benevolent institutions members of the religious orders of both sexes arc acti\'e; the Protestant in- stitutions are served by deaconesses. There are also institutions in which both faiths are represented, as the hospital at Augsburg, where patients of both denominations are cared for by Catholic and Protestant sisters. At Munich there are only sisters of the Society of St. Vincent de Paul, and at Nurem- berg deaconesses, although in both places the per- centage of patients of other faiths is large. The clergy of the different faiths exercise their office