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undisturbed in the hospitals of both cities. Of the otlier humanitarian associations mention should be made of the Gesellenverein which gives travelling journeymen-mechanics an opportunity for further education. In nearly all the larger towns it has lodging-houses and in a few places large, well- ecjuipped homes. Workinginen's Unions endeavour to counteract the tendencies of the Social Democrats; citizens' and voters' associations strive to send to the Bavarian as well as to the Imperial Parliament representatives of pronouncedly Christian principles. Civil Status oj the Church. — The relations of Church and State are settled in all important points by the Concordat and the Constitution [cf. Silbernagl, op. cit.; Idem, "Lehrbuch des kathoUschen Kirchen- rechts" (Ratisbon, 1903), 4 vols.; Giron y Areas, "La situacion juridica de la Iglesia en los diversos estados de Europa y de America ' ' (Madrid, 1905)]. Although the promises made the Holy See were not kept in all particulars , for instance in the early seventies of the nineteenth century, yet, taken altogether, conditions are satisfactory; this is owing largely to the strong religious feeling of the reigning dynasty, once more thoroughly Catholic. The Catholic Church has, how- ever, no special privileges. It is on the same foot- ing as the Lutheran, the Reformed, and the Greek schismatics.

Parishes under the jurisdiction of monasteries, as in Austria, are not known in Bavaria. Where mem- bers of the religious orders assume pastoral functions, it is only by way of substitution; in these cases they receive the same governmental support as do the secular clergy. The funds of the Church are liable to taxation as other funds. No concession or mitigation is granted. Priests are not obliged to sit as lay asses- sors, nor to act as jurors, nor to be guardians of minors. Military service is not obligatory on theo- logical students, at least, if when the army is mobil- ized, they have been ordained subdeacons. In this case they are employed as nurses. The civil code has limited ecclesiastical jurisdiction in matters of mar- riage, but Catholics still respect the teaching of the Church, especially that death alone can dissolve marriage. A serious question is tiie great of mixed marriages, especially in the large cities, and the consequent Protestant education of children. Owing to various considerations, the evil has not been combated as vigorously a.s it should be. Prisons and reformatories are, as a rule, visited by clergymen of all faiths, but full provision is made for the pastoral supervision of Catholic prisoners. Prisoners con- demned to death are accompanied by priests to the scaffold. Gifts and testamentary bequests for re- ligious and benevolent objects are frequent. They are made under the regulations of the civil code by which any association that has given proper notifica- tion to the authorities is regarded as a person in the sense of the law. In the cities the cemeteries belong, as a rule, to the civil community, but nearly every- where in the country they are part of the parish and are used in common by the Christian confessions. Cremation is not permitted in Bavaria although there is an agitation in its fa\'Our.

Those desiring more detailed information are referred to the following authorities: Hopf, "Bayerische Geschichte in Zeittafeln" (Nuremberg, 180.5); Denk and Weiss, "Un-ser Bayerland" (Munich, 1906); Riezler, "Geschichte Bayerns" (Gotha, 1878, 1903), (j vols.; Doberl, "Entwickelungsgeschichte Bayerns" (Munich, 1906), 1 vol., cxtinding to 1648. A reliable authority on the Wittclsliach dynasty is: Hautle, "Genealogie des erlauchten Wittels- bach" (Munich, 1870). Among the autlinritics for the Rhine Palatinate are: Hiius.ser, "(ieschichtc <lcr rheinischen Pfalz" (Heidelberg, 184.5), 2 vols.; Reinling, "Ge.schichte der Bischofe zu Spcyer" 'Mainz, 1852), 4 vols.; Hilgard, " Urkundenbucli zur

Geschichte der Stadt Speyer" (Strasburg, 1885); Molitor "Urkundebuch beziiglich zur Geschichte der Stadt Zweibrticken " (Zweibrucken, 1888). For the history of Franconia: Stein, "Geschichte Frank- ens" (Schwcinfurt, 1883-86), 2 vols. For the history of Swabia: Braun, "Geschichte der Bischofe von Augsburg" (Augsburg, 1813), 4 vols.; Steichele, "Das Bisthum Augsburg, historisch und statistisch beschrieben" (Augsburg, 1864-94), 6 vols., continua- tion by Schroder; Baumann, "Geschichte des Algiiu" (Kempten, 1880-94), 3 vols.

Pius WittiM.\xx.

Bawden (or Baldwin), William, an English Jesuit, b. at Cornwall, 1563; d. at St.-Omer, 28 Sep- tember, 1632. Father Bawden studied for five years at Oxford and later spent some time at Douay Col- lege, from whence he went to Reims, arriving at the latter institution 31 December, 1582. Leaving Reims, he went, 13 August, 1583. to Rome and in the English College at that city he completed his studies for the priesthood and was ordained priest 16 April. 1586. After his ordination he .served one year as English penitentiary at St. Peter's, when his" health failed. He next went to Belgium and in 1.590, on joining the Jesuits, be became professor of theologj' at Louvain. His health failing again, he went to Brussels, where he resided for eleven years. His next change was to Germany, where he was arrested and sent to England for an alleged connexion with the Gunpowder Plot. He was incarcerated in the Tower for eight years and was tortured in the hope of ex- tracting a confession from him. His innocence being established, he was liberated, but at the same time banished. In 1621 he was appointed rector of Louvain and the next year was transferred to the rectorship of St.-Omer's College, where he remained until his death.

Cooper in Diet. Nat. Biog., Ill, 39; Gillow, BM. Diet. Eng. Cath., I, 156.

Thomas Gafpney Taaffe.

Bayer, Adele, nie Parmentier, eldest daughter of Andrew Parmentier, b. in Belgium. 4 July, 1814, and d. in Brooklyn, New York, 22 January, 1892. Andrew Parmentier, a horticulturist and cUnX en- gineer, was b. .".t Enghien, Belgium, 3 July, 1780, and d. in Brooklyn, New York, 26 November, 1830. His father, Andrew Joseph Parmentier, was a wealthy linen merchant, and his eldest brother Joseph had "a European repute as a liorticulturist and landscape gardener. Trained by the latter, Andrew emigrated to New York in 1824, on his way to the West Indies, taking with him his share of the family estate. He was persuaded by friends to remain in New York as a place where his abilities and scientific training would meet witli recognition. He purchased a tract of land near Brooklyn w'hich he laid out as a horti- cultural park. It became famous in a short time and his services as an expert in designing pleasure grounds were sought for in many places North and South. He is said to have exercised a more potent influence in landscape gardening in the United States than any other person of his profession up to that time. He was the first to introduce into the L^nitcd States the black beech tree and several varieties of shrubs, vegetables, and vines. He was one of the founders and trustees of St. James's, the first Catholic church in the present Diocese of Brooklyn, and was at the height of his influence and repute when he died in Brooklyn. 26 November, 18.30. After liis death liis daughter .\dcle and her mother (SylWa M., b. at Louvain, Belgium, 1793; d. in Brooklyn, New York. 27 .\pril. 1882), carried on his Botanical and Horti- cultural Gardens imtil 1832, when they were sold. Thereafter they devoted most of their time and in- come to works of charity, aided substantially tlie Imlian missions of Father De Smet, S.J., the estab-