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Nuns, Benedictine and others: —



Benedictine Nuns: Religious

1. Under Benedictine

Abbots 9 251

2. Under Bisliops .... 253 7,156

Camaldolese Nuns 5 150

Cistercian Nuns 100 2 965

Olivetan Nuns 20 200

387 10,722

The foregoing tables, which are taken from the "Album Benedictinum" of 1906, give a grand aggre- gate of 684 monasteries, -n-ith 22,009 religious of both sexes. The statistics for missions and churches served include those churches and missions over which the monasteries exercise the right of patronage, as well as those actually served by monks.

V. Benedictines of Speci.u, Dlstinction. — The following Usts are not intended to be in any way exhaustive; they merely profess to include some of the more famous members of the order. The names are classified according to the particular sphere o'f work in which they are most celebrated, but although many of them might therefore have a just claim to be included in more than one of the different classes, when the same individual was distinguished in several different departments of work, from considerations of space and for the avoidance of unnecessary repeti- tion, his name has been inserted only under one head. The lists are arranged more or less chrono- logically, except where some connecting features seem to call for special grouping. To most of the names the countrj' to which the individual belonged is added in parenthesis.

Popes. — St. Gregory the Great (Rome): bom c. 540, d. 604; one of the four Latin Doctors; celebrated for his writings and for his reform of ecclesiastical chant; called the "Apostle of England" because he sent St. Augustine to that country in 596. Syl- vester II or Gerbert (France), 999-1003; a monk of Fleury. St. Gregory VH or Hildebr.'ind Aldo- brandeschi (Tuscany), 1073-85; a monk of Cluny and aften\-ards Abbot of St. Paul's, Rome. Bl. Victor III (Benevento), 1086-87; Abbot of Monte Cassino. Paschal II (Tuscany), 1099-1118; a monk of Cluny. Gelasius ll or Giovanni da Gaeta, John Cajetan (Gaeta), 1118-19; historian. St. C«lestine V or Pietro di Murrhone (ApuUa), b. 1221, d. 1296; founder of the order of Celestines; was elected pope 1294, but abdicated after reigning only six months Clement VI (FVance), 1342-52; a monk of Chaise- Dieu. Bl. Urban V (France), 1362-70; Abbot of St. Victor, Marseilles. Pius VII or Bamaba Chiara- monti (Italy), 1800-23; was taken by force from Rome and imprisoned at Savona and Fontainebleau (1809-14) by Napoleon, whom he had crowned in 1804; returned to Rome in 1814. Gregorj' XVI or Maurus Cappellari (Venice), 1831—46, a Camaldolese monk and Abbot of St. Andrew's on the CoeUan Hill, Rome.

Apostles and Misswnari^. — St. Aagustine (Rome), d. 604; Prior of St. Andrew's on the Coelian Hill; the Apostle of England (596); first Archbishop of CanterDury (,597). St. Boniface (England), b. 680, martyred 755; Apostle of Germany and Archbishop of Mainz. St. Willibrord (England), bom c. 658, d. 738; the Apostle of Friesland. St. Swithbert (England), d. 713; the Apostle of Holland. St. Rupert (France), d. 718; the Apostle of Bavaria and Bishop of Salzburg. St. Sturm (Bavaria), d. 779; first Abbot of Fulda. St. Ansgar (Germany), b. 801, d. 865; monk of Corbie and Apostle of Sean<linavia. St. Adalbert, d. 997; the Apostle of Bohemia.

Founders of Abbeys and Congregations. Reformers, etc. — St. Erkenwald (England), diedc. 693; Bishop of London; foimder of Chertsey and Barking abbeys.

St. Benedict Biscop (England), d. 690; founder of Wearmouth and Jarrow. St. Filbert (France), d. 684; founder of Jumieges. St. Benedict of Aniane (France), d. 821; reformer of monasteries under Charlemagne; presided at council of abbots. Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle), 817. St. Dunstan (England), d. 988; Abbot of Glastouburj' (c. 945). and after- wards Archbishop of Canterburj- (961); reformer of English monasteries. St. Bemo (France), d. 927; founder and first Abbot of Clunv (909). St. Odo or Eudes (France), b. 879, d. 942; second Abbot of Cluny. St. Aymard (France), d. 965; third Abbot of Cluny. St. Majolus or Maieul (France), b. 906, d. 994; fourth Abbot of Cluny; Otto II desired to make him pope in 974 but he refused. St. Odilo (France), d. 1048; fifth Abbot of Cluny. Bemard of Cluny (France), d. 1109; famous in connexion with the eleventh-century " Ordo Cluniacensis " which bears his name. Peter the Venerable (France), d. 1156; ninth Abbot of Cluny; employed by several popes in important affairs of the Church. St. Romuald (Italy), b. 956, d. 1026; founder of the Camaldolese congregation (1009). Herluin (France), d. 1078; founder of Bee ( 1040). St. Robert of Molesme (France), b. 1018, d. 1110; founder and Abbot of Molesme (1075); joint-founder and first Abbot of Citeaux (1098). St. Alberic (France), d. 1109; joint-founder and second Abbot of Citeaux. St. Stephen Harding (England), d. 1134; joint-founder and third Abbot of Citeaux. St. Bemard (France), b. 1091, d. 1153; joined Citeau.x with thirty other noblemen (1113); foimded Clairvaux (1115); wrote many spiritual and theological works; was a states- man and adviser of kings, and a Doctor of the Church; he preached the Second Crusade throughout France and Germany at the request of Eugenius III (1146). St. William of Hirschau (Germany), c. 1090; author of "Constitutions of Hirschau". St. John Gualbert (Italy), b. 999, d. 1073; founder of Vallombrosa (10.39). St. Stephen or Etienne (France), d. 1124; founder of Gramniont (1076). Bl. Robert of Arbrissel (France), d. 1116; founder of Fontevrault (1099). St. WiUiam (Italy), d. 1142; founder of Monte Vergine (1119). St. Sylvester (Italy), b. 1177, d. 1267; founder of the Sylvestrines (1231). St. Bemard Ptolemy (Italy), b. 1272, d. 1348; founder of the Olivetans (1319). Ludovico Barbo (Italy), d. 1443; first a canon regular, then .\bbot of St. Justina of Padua and founder of the congregation of the same name (1409). Didier de la Cour (France), b. 1550, d. 1623; founder of the congregation of St.-Vannes (1598). Laurent B^nard (France), b. 1573, d. 1620; Prior of Climy College, Paris, and founder of the Maurist congregation (1618). Jos6 Serra (Spain), b. 1811, died c. 1880; Coadjutor Bishop of Perth, AustraUa (1848); and Rudesind Salvado (Spain), b. 1814, d. 1900; Bishop of Port Victoria (1849); founders of New Nursia, AustraUa. Prosper Gueranger (France), b. 1805, d. 1875; founder of the Galilean congregation (1837); restored Solesmes (1837); well known as a hturgical writer. Jean-Baptiste Muard (France), b. 1809, d. 1854; founder of Pierre-qui-Vire and of th.e French province of the Cassinese Congregation of Primitive Ob.servance (1850). Maurus Wolter (Germany), b. 1825, d. 1900; founder of the Beuronese congre- gation (1860); Abbot of Beuron (1868). Pietro Francesco Casaretto (Italy), b. 1810, d. 1878; founder and first Abbot-General of Cassinese congregation of Primitive Observance (1851). Boniface Wimmer (Bavaria), b. 1809, d. 1887; founder of .\mcriean Ca.ssinese congregation (18,55). Martin Marty (Swit- zerland), b. 1834. d. 1896; founder of Swiss .Vmerican congregation (1870); Abbot of St. Meinrad's, Indiana (1870); Vicar .\postolic of Dakota (1879). Jerome Vaughan (England), b. 1841, d. 1896; founder of Fort Augustus .\bbey (1878). Gerard van Caloen