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(Belgium), b. 1853; restorer of Brazilian congrega- tion; Abbot of Baliia (1896); titular Bishop of Pho- ca-a (1906).

Scholars, Historians, Spiritual Writers, etc. — St. Bede (England), b. 673, d. 735; monk of Jarrow, Doctor of the Church, historian, and commentator. St. Aldhelm (England), d. 709; Abbot of Mahnesbiuy and Bishop of Sherborne. Alcuin (England), d. 804, monk of York; founder of schools in France under Charlemagne. Rabanus Maurus (Germany), d. 856; Archbishop of Mainz. St. Paschasius Rad- bertus (Germany), d. 860; Abbot of Corbie. Ratram- nus (Germany), d. 866; a monk of Corbie, who took part in Sacramentarian controversy. Walafrid Strabo (Germany), d. 849; a monk of Fulda, and afterwards Abbot of Reichenau. Abbon of Fleurj' (France), tenth century; at one time a monk at Can- terburj'. Notker (Switzerland), d. 1022; a monk of St. Gall; theologian, mathematician, and musician. Guido d'Arezzo (Italy), died c. 1028; inventor of the gamut. Hermannus Contractus (Germany), eleventh century; a monk of St. Gall; learned in Eastern languages; author of the "Salve Regina". Paul Warnefrid, or Paul the Deacon (Italy), eighth centurj'; historian and teacher (scholasticus) at Monte Cassino. Hincmar (France), d. 882; a monk of St. Denis; Archbishop of Reims (845). St. Peter Damian (Italy), b. 988, d. 1072; a monk of the Camaldolese reform at Fonte Avellano; Cardinal Bishop of Ostia (1057). Lanfranc (Italy), b. 1005 in Lombardy, d. at Canterbun,', 1089; a monk at Bee (1042); founder of the school there; Archbishop of Canterbury (1070). St. .\nselm (Italy), b. 1033 in Piedmont, d. 1109; a monk at Bee (1060); Abbot of Bee (1078); Archbishop of Canterbury (1093); usually considered the first scholastic. Eadmer (England), d. 1137; a monk of Canterburj- and disciple of St. Anselm, whose life he wrote. The English historians: Florence of Worcester, d. 1118; Simeon of Durham, d. 1130; Jocelin de Brakelonde, d. 1200, a monk and chronicler of Bury St. Edmunds; Matthew Paris, d. 1259, a monk of St. Albans; William of Malmesbury, died c. 1143; Gervase of Canterburj', died c. 1205; Roger of Wendover, d. 1237, a monk of St. Albans. Peter the Deacon (Italy), died c. 1140; a monk of Monte Cassino. .\dam Easton (England), d. 1397, a monk of Norwich; Cardinal (1380). John Lydgate (England), died

c. 145t>; a monk of Bury St. Edmunds; poet. Jolm Wheathamstead (England), d. 1440; Abbot of St. Albans. Johannes Trithemius (Germany), b. 1462,

d. 1516; .\bbot of Spanheim. a voluminous writer and great traveller. Louis BlosiiLs (Belgium), b. 1506. d. 1566; Abbot of Liessies (1530); author of the " Mirror for Monks". Juan de Castaniza (Spain), d. 1599; a monk of St. Saviour's, Onna. Benedict van Haeften (Belgium), b. 1588, d. 1648; Prior of Afflighem. Clement Reyncr (England), b. 1589, d. 1651; a monk at Dieulouard (1610); Abbot of Lamspring (1643). Augustine Baker (England), b. 1575; d. 1641 ; a monk of Dieulouard and author of "Sancta Sophia". Augustine Calmet (France), b. 1672, d. 1757; .\bbot of Senones-en-Vosges; best known for his "Dictionary of the Bible". Carolus Meichelbeck (Bavaria), b. 1669; d. 1734; librarian and historian of Benediktbeuem. Magnoald Ziegel- bauer (Germany). 1689, d. 1750; author of a Uterarj' historj' of the Order of St. Benedict. Marquard Ilerrgott (Germany), b. 1694, d. 1762; i monk of St.-Blasien. Suitbert Baunier (Germany), b. 1845, d. 1894; a monk of Beuron. Luigi Tosti (Italv), b. 1811, d. 1897; abbot; Vice-Archivist to the Holy See. J. B. F. Pitra (France), b. 1812, d. 1889; a monk of Solesmes; Cardinal-Bishop of Frascati (1863); librarian of the Holy Roman Church. Fran- cis Aidan Gasquet (England), b. 1846; a monk of Downside and Abbot-President of the EngUsh Bene-

dictine congregation. Femand Cabrol (France), b. 1855; Abbot of Famborough (Galilean congrega- tion). Jean (France), b. 1861; a monk of Liguge. Germain Morin, of the Beuronese congre- gation, b. 1861. Jolm Chapman, of the Beuronese congregation, b. 1865. Edward Cuthbert Butler (England), b. 1858; Abbot of Do^-nside (1906).

The Congregation of St.-Maur. — The following are some of the chief writers of this congregation: Adrien Langlois, d. 1627; one of the first Maurists. Nicolas Menard, b. 1585, d. 1644. Gregoire Tar- risse, b. 1575, d. 1648; first Superior General of the congregation. Luc d'Aeherj^, b. 1609, d. 1685. Antoine-Joseph Mege, b. 1625, d. 1691. Louis Bulteau, b. 1625, d. 1693. Michel Germain, b. 1645. d. 1694; a companion of Mabillon. Claude Martin, b. 1619, d. 1696. Claude Estenniot, b. 1639. d. 1699; a companion of Mabillon. Jean Mabillon, b. 1632. d. 1707; the greatest of the Maurists. Thierrj- Ruinart, b. 1657, d. 1709; a companion and biog- rapher of Mabillon. Francois Lamy, b. 1636. d. 1711. Pierre Constant, b. 1654, d. 1721. Denis de Sainte-Marthe. b. 1650, d. 1725. Julien Gamier, b. 1670. d. 1725. Edmond Martene, b. 1654, d. 1739. I'rsin Durand. b. 1682, d. 1773. Bernard de Mont- faucon, b. 1655, d. 1741. Rene-Prosper Tassin, d. 1777.

Bishops, Monks, Martyrs, etc. — St. Laurence (Italy), d. 619; came to England with St. Augustine (597), whom he succeeded as .\rchbishop of Canter- burj' (604). St. Mellitus (Italy), d. 624; a Roman abbot, sent to England with other monks to assist St. Augustine (601); foimder of St. Paul's, London, and first Bishop of London (604); Archbishop of Canterbury (619). St. Justus (Italv\ d. 627; came to England (601); first Bishop of Rochester (604) and afterwards Archbishop of Canterburj- (624). St. Paulinus of York (Italv), d. 644; came to Eng- land (601); first Bishop of York (625); Bishop of Rochester (633). St. Odo (England), d. 961; Arch- bishop of Canterburj-. St. Elphege or ^Elfheah (England), d. 1012; Archbishop of Canterburv (1006); killed by the Danes. St. Oswald (England). d. 992; nephew of St. Odo of Canterburj-; Bishop of Worcester (959); Archbishop of York (972). St. Berlin (France), b. 597, d. 709; Abbot of Saint-Omer. St. Botolph (England), d. 655; abbot. St. Wilfrid, bom c, 634, d. 709; Bishop of York. St. Cuthbert. d. 687; Bishop of Lindisfarne. St. John of Beverlev. d. 721; Bishop of Hexham. St. Swithin, d. 862; Bishop of Winchester. St. Ethelwold, d. 984; Bishop of Winchester. St. Wulfstan, d. 1095; Bishop of Worcester. St. ^Ired, b. 1109, d. 1160; Abbot of Rievaulx. Yorkshire. St. Thomas of Canterburj- or Thomas Becket. bom c. 1117, mar- tj-red 1170; Chancellor of England (1155); Arch- bishop of Canterbury (1162). St. Edmund Ricli. d. 1240; Archbishop of Canterburv (1234); died in exile. Suger (France), b. 1081, d. 1151; Abbot of St. Denis and Regent of France. Bl. Richard Whit- ing, abbot of Glastonburj-, Bl. Roger James, and Bl. John Thorn, monks of Glastonburj-; Bl. Hugli Faringdon. Abbot of Reading, Bl. William Ej-non, and Bl. Jolm Rugg, monks of Reading; and Bl. John Beche, Abbot of Colchester; all executeil (1539) for denj-ing the supremacy of Henry VIII in ecclesiastical matters. John de Feckenham (or Howman), d. 1585; last Abbot of Westminster; died in prison. Sigebert Bucklej', bom c. 1517, d. 1610: a monk of Westminster; the link between the old and new- English congregations. Yen. John Roberts, bom c. 1575. mart^-red 1610; founder of St. Gregor\-'s. Douai. Wilham Gabriel Gifford, b. 1554, d. 1629; professor of theologs' at Reims (1582); Dean of Lille (1597); a monk at Dieulouard (1609); Arcli- bishop of Reims (1622). Leander of St. Martin (John Jones), b. 1575. d. 1635; President of the Eng-