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hands, they stand in a certain relation of subordi- nation, the spiritual power being the higher of the two. His \-iews are to be found in "' Libellus adversus Petrum de Cugneriis" and "De origine et usu iuris- dictionum", published in Paris in 1495 and 15S4 respectively, and later inserted in volume XIV of the "Magna Bibliotheca Veterum Patrum" (Cologne, 161S). Many other writings of Cardinal Bertrand (apologetical, canonical, pastoral) have not been published and are reported to be in the Vatican Library.

(2) Berthaxd, Pierre, de Colombier (also known as Bertr.vxd Pierre), a French cardinal, nephew of the foregoing, whose name he adopted, b. in 1279, at Colombier, in Vivarais; d. in 1361 at the priory of Montaud, near A^â– ignon. Like his uncle, he studied law and occupied important positions in the Parlia- ment of Paris. Ordained priest, he soon rose to distinction, became Bishop of Nevers, then of Autun, later of Arras, and was made cardinal by Clement VI, 1344. His career as a cardinal was a distinguished one. The popes at Avignon used him as their trusted agent in many delicate missions, notably for the termination of the war between France and England and the election of Cliarlcs of Bohemia to the im- perial throne. He met little success in his endeav- our to stop the Hundred Years' War, but brought about the desired election of Charles IV, and, having in the meantime become Dean of the Sacred College, was naturally chosen by Innocent ^'I to go to Rome and crown the new emperor. Cardinal de Colombier left no wTitings. The Celestine monks of Colombier and Montaud, whose benefactor he was, held his and his uncle's memorj' in great veneration. We are indebted to them for many biographical details on the two Cardinals Bertrand.

B*RONirs-M.iNSl, Annates Ecdeswstin, anno 1SS9 (Lucca, 1750), XXIV; Gallia Christiana (Paris, 172O-70\ III. IV and XII; Mazon in Grande Encyclopedia; Idem, Essai historique Vivaraia (Tournon, 1890); Chev.\i.ier, Rep. des sources hist.: Bio-bibl. .T. F. SOLUER.

Bertulf, Saint, Abbot of Bobbio, date of birth unknown; d. 639 or 640. He was the son of a pagan nobleman in Austrasia and a near relative of St. Amulf, Bishop of Metz, whose pious example had such an influence on Bertulf that he became a Chris- tian and in 620 entered the monasterj- of Luxeuil. A few years later he became acquainted with Abbot Attala, who had come to Luxeuil on a \'isit. and, with permission of Abbot Eustace of Luxeuil, joined Attala's commimity at Bobbio in Italj-. L^pon the death of Attala, in 627, Bertulf was elected by the monks of Bobbio as their abbot. Like his holy predecessor, he insisted on the observance of the austere rule introduced by St. Columban, the foimder of Bobbio, and preached fearlessly against Arianism, which had gained a firm foothold in Italy under the Lombard kings. When tlie Bishop of Tortona endeavoured to bring Bobbio under his own juris- diction, Bertulf hastened to Rome, where Pope Honorius received him kindly and granted the monastery entire exemption from episcopal jurisdic- tion. Jonas, a monk of Bobbio, who accompanied Bertulf on his journey to Rome, relates that, while returning to his monasterj', Bertulf was attacked by a deadly fever, and cured miraculously by St. Peter. The same author ascribes a few other miracles to the prayers of St. Bertulf. Most martjT- ologies give him the title of saint. His feast is cele- brated on 19 August.

The first source for Bertulf's biographies is a short life written by the above-mentioned monk, Jonas of Bobbio; Mabillqn, Acta SS. O. S. B.. sm. II, 160; and the Bolland- ISTS. Acta SS.. August. Ill, 752, have published this biog- raphy, .See also MAnil.LON. .innales Benedictini, ad an. 628, vii; M0XTAI.EMBERT. Monks of the West (Boston), I, 5S2 sqq.; Lechner. M artyroloffium des Benediktiner-Ordens (Augsburg, 1855), 323: GcERLN, lies des Saints (Paris). X, 27 sqq.

Michael Ott.

Benille, Pierre de, cardinal, and fomider of the French congregation of the Oratorj', b. in tlie province of Champagne, France, at the chateau of Cerilly. 4 Februan,-, 157,5; d, 2 October, 1629. De B^rulle came from a distinguished family of magistrates. From his youth and even before his ordination he devoted himself to the conversion of Protestants and wrote a " Discourse on Interior Abnegation". After entering t'ne priesthood he was made chaplain to Henrj' IV and, in company with his friends the Cardinal du Perron and St. Francis de Sales, he continued his labours for the conv^ersion of the Huguenots. With the co-operation of Madame Acarie (the Bl. Marie of the Incarnation) he intro- duced Carmelite nuns of the Reform of St. Teresa into France, a work attended with many difficulties. In 1611 de Berulle fovmded the congregation of the Oratorj- on the model of the one formed some years before by St. Philip Neri at Rome. Owing to the differences of time and place the French congregation varied in some important respects from the ItaUan Oratorj'. (Cf. Oratory, French Congreg.\tion OF the.) In speaking of the French Oratorians it should be remembered that from this congregation proceeded the seventeenth-centurj- reform of the clergy of France. The celebrated Jesuit Cotton called the French Oratorj- "necessarj- to the Church", and St. Francis de Sales said also that there was "nothing more saintlj' and more useful to the Church and God". While filling the office of Superior-Gen- eral of the Oratory Father de B^ruUe was also activelj' emploj'ed in the public affairs of the time; for example, in the arrangements for the marriage of Charles I of England with Henrietta of France, sister of Louis XIII. Pope Urban VIII in 1627 rewarded de Berulle's services to Church and State by creating him a cardinal. Two j'ears later de B^ruUe died wliile saj-ing Mass. His disciple, St. Vincent de Paul, said of him: " He is one of the most saintly priests I have known", and his friend St. Francis de Sales declared: "He is everything which I should desire to be mj'self ".

Cardinal de B^ruUe left several works, the remark- able qualities of whicli led Pope Urban ^TII to call him the Apostolus Vcrbi incarnati. "This expres- sion", wrote Cardinal Perraud, also an Oratorian, in his work "L'Oratoire de France aux XVIP et XVIII^ siecles", "is more than a magnificent pane- gjTic awarded to the pietj' of the founder of the Ora- torj'; in a word, it contains the essential epitome of his written works, for it maj' be said of them, as of the entire hfe of the saintlj' cardinal, that the one aim was to make our Saviour Jesus Christ better known and more loved." The chief works of Cardi- nal de Berulle are: (1) "Traite des ^nergumenes" (Troj-es, 1599). (2) "Discours etc." (Paris, 1609) on various subjects. (3) "Discours de I'etat et des grandeurs de J6sus" (Paris, 1623). The last men- tioned work was reprinted several times; the sub- stance and often the actual expressions are to be found in the "M&litations" of Father Bour- going and also in Bossuet's "Elevations sur les mj-s- teres". (4) "Vie de Jesus" (Paris, 1629); this was a sequel to the preceding work, which the pious author had just finished at the time of his death. (5) "Elevation a Jesus-Christ sur Sainte Madeleine" (Paris, 1627). Father Bourgoing issued a complete edition of the works of Cardinal de Berulle (Paris. 1644), which included some writings not mentioned above, and he added to the edition a "table of the theologj' of this great author arranged according to the order of the ' Sumina ' of St. Thomas". In 1856 the Abb6 Migne reprinted the third edition of the complete works. Cardinal de Berulle's writings exhibit a robust and vigorous doctrine full of unction and piety, which is set forth at times in a somewhat diffuse stj'le. One of his biographers. Father Cloy-