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Thiers which resulted in \'ictory for the Church and liberty.

Wallon, Eloges academiques (Paris, 1SS2), I.

Georges Goyau.

Beuno, S.\ixt, Abbot of Clj-nnog, d. 660(?), was, according to the "Bucched Beuno", born in Powis-land and, after education and ordination in the monastery of Bangor, in North Wales, became an active missioner, Cadvan, Iving of G\\-jTiedd, be- ing his generous benefactor. Cad wallon, Cad van's son and successor, deceived Beuno about some land, and on the saint demanding justice proved obdurate. Thereupon, Cadwallon's cousin Gweddeint, in rep- aration, "gave to God and Beuno forever his town- ship", where the saint (c. 616) founded the Abbey of ClJ^lnog Favrr (Carnarvonshire).

Beuno became the guardian and restorer to life of his niece, the virgin St. Winefride, whose clients still obtain marvellous favours at Holj'weU (Flint- shire V He was relentless with hardened sinners, but full of compassion to those in distress. Before his death "on the seventh day after Easter" he had a wondrous vision. Eleven churches bearing St. Beuno's name, with various relics and local usages, witness to his far-reaching missionary zeal. He is commemorated on the 21st of April.

Rees. Lives of Camhro-British Saints (1S53); the Bucched Beuno found in this work gives a secure basis of names and dedications; of. Pollen in The Month, February, 1S94, 235; Stubbs, Councils, I, 160; Diet. Nat. Biog.. IV, 444.


Beverley Minster, a collegiate chu/eh at Bever- ley, capital of the East Riding of Yorkshire, served by a chapter of secular canons until the Reformation. The foimdation owes its origin to St. John of Beverley early in the eighth century, when the locaUty was a clearing in the forest of Deira (Indrawood), after- wards known as Beverlac (A. S. Benferlic), a name possibly due to the colonies of beavers in the river Hull. St. John here founded a community of monks and another of nuns, but traditions as to the exist- ence of an earher church are legendary and untrust- worthy. Later the saint, having resigned his See of York, retired here and died (721). his shrine being in the minster. After the destruction of the mon- astery by the Danes, a chapter of secular canons was founded by Kng Athelstan in gratitude for liis victory at Brunanburh (937), as he had visited the shrine on his march north. It remained a popular place of pilgrimage throughout the vicissitudes of the Danish and Norman invasions. Few particulars about the early liistory of the church are kno^NTi, but a fire in 1188 destroyed the greater part of it, and the present Gothic minster, rivalling the great cathedrals in beauty, dates from that time. The west front in particular is unsurpassed as a specimen of the Perpendicular style. The choir and double transepts were built earlj- in the tlairteenth century; while the present nave replaced the Norman nave a century later. Throughout the Middle Ages the shrine was frequented by pilgrims, and the charters of its liberties were renewed by successive monarchs. Its banner was placed on the standard at the "battle of the Standard" (1138), and it was further honoured after the victorj' of .\gincourt, which was won on the feast of the translation of St. John (25 October, 1415), and was attributed by Henrj' V to that saint's intercession (Ljiidwode, Provinciale ", II, ■' Anglicanae"). The minster was originally served by a chancellor, precentor, sacrist, nine canons, nine vicars-choral and seven berefetlarii or clerks, but in time .several chantrj' priests and minor officials were added. The temporahties were administered by a provost, who was not necessarily a member of the chapter. The former office was held by many noted Englishmen, including St. Thomas Becket and John de Thoresby, afterwards Cardinal. Blessed Joim

Fisher is believed to have received his first educa- tion at the grammar school attached to the minster The chapter being secular, the minster escaped thr ruin that fell on the monasteries under Henry VIll. but was dissolved in 1547 under the "Colleges ami Chantries Act " of Edward VI. The seventy-seven collegiate officers thus dispossessed were replaced by a vicar and three assistants reduced, under Eliza- beth, to a \-icar and one curate. Gradually thi- minster fell into decay until, in 1713. a restoration became necessary to save it from ruin. This was successfully executed, and as a result of further work in 1866 and subsequent years it still remains on<- of the most remarkable Gothic churches in England. DuGD.\LE. Monasticon; Poulson, Bererlac (London, 1829': Oliver, History and Antiquities of the Town and Minster ui Beverley (Beverley, 1829); Petit. Remarks on Beverley Min- ster, in Arch. Institute's York Vol. (1848); Crickmer, Ecclesi- astical History of Beverley Minster (Beverley, 1890); Hiatt. Beverley Minster (London, 1904).

Edwin Burton.

Beyerlinck, L.^wrexce, Belgian theologian and ecclesiastical wTiter, b. at Antwerp, April, 1578; d. at the same place, 22 June, 1627. The son of a noted pharmacist, he prepared at Lou vain for the same profession but, deciding to enter the priesthood, he was ordained June, 1602. ^Vhile a theological stu- dent he taught poetry and rhetoric at the college of Vaulx and as pastor of Herent was professor of phi- losophy at a nearby seminary of canons regular. In 1605 he came to the ecclesiastical seminary of Ant- werp, taught philosophy and theology and later became superior. In 1608 he was canon, censor, and theologian of the church of Antwerp; in 1614 he was made protonotary. Beyerlinck was an exemplary priest, a gifted rhetorician, orator, and administrator, and an indefatigable worker. Besides seminar}' and diocesan work he was engaged continually in preach- ing and WTiting. Compilation was his bent. His works are mainly encyclopedic; his knowledge more extensive than profoimd. He wTOte, e. g. a second volume (Antwerp, 1611) of the "Opus Chronographi- cum orbis universi a mundi e.xordio usque ad anniun MDCXI" (first volume to year 1572 bj- Opmeer), a collection of lives of popes, rulers, and illustrious men; and the "Magnmn Tlieatrum Vitse Humana", hoc est Rerum Divinarmn Humanarumque sjTitagma Catholicum Philosophicum Historicum Dogmati- cum", etc. (Cologne, 1631, 7 vols.; Venice, 1707, 8 vols.), an encyclopedia of information on diverse subjects arranged in alphabetical order. Its scope ranges from profound theological dissertations to merest trivialities. Much of its vast material was gathered by others, but to Beyerlinck belongs the credit of giving the work its final form. His numerous other publications are listed in the works referred to in the appended bibliography.

Vita Auetoris in Mngnum Theatrum (Cologne, 1631), I. preface; Foppens, Bibliotheca Belgica (Brussels, 1739), 804- 805; Biog. univ. (Paris, 1811), IV, 426.

John B. Peterson.

Beza Codex. See Codex Bez^.

Bianchi and Neri. See Florence.

Bianchi, Giov.vnxi Axtoxio, Friar Minor and theologian, b. at Lucca, 2 October, 1686; d. at Rome, IS January, 1768. At the age of seventeen he entered the Franciscan Order. He was once elected to the office of Provinical of the Roman Province, and for a number of years was professor of philosophy and theology. During these years of professorship, he no doubt acquired much of the extensive and accu- rate acquaintance with ecclesiastical subjects dis- played in the productions of his later life. He possessed a memory of such range and tenacity that he was considered a prodigj' by the many students and scholars who came to visit him in his convent cell. Bianchi was held in high esteem by the Roman Curia and by Clement XII, whose successor, Bene-