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diet XIV, appointed him consultor of the Holy Office.

It was perhaps at the instance of Clement XII that Bianchi composed his scholarly and exhaustive defence of the rights and privileges of the Roman Pontiff, which had been attacked by the Neapolitan lawyer, Pietro Giannone, in the latter's "Storia civile del regno di Napoli". Bianchi's work which was entitled "DeUa podesta e della polizia della chiesa, trattati due contro le nuove oplnioni di Pietro Giannone" appeared in Rome in six volumes between the years 1745 and 1751. In the first treatise (2 vols.) Bianchi defends the indirect power of the Roman Pontiff over temporal sovereigns; while he lucidly and forcibly defends the rights of the pope as regards the external laws and government of the Church, in the second treatise, which comprises the remaining four volumes. Amid the storm of con- troversial literature provoked by the treatise of the Dominican theologian, Daniele Concina, "De Spec- taculis theatralibus", Bianchi's "Sui vizii e sui difetti del moderno teatro e sui modo di corregerli ed emendarli" appeared at Rome in 1753. In this he contends with Scipio Maffei against Concina for the lawfulness, within certain limits, of modern theatrical displays. Notwithstanding these graver preoccupations, Bianchi found time to indulge his predilection for poetry and tragic writing, and his compositions in this field, though of minor impor- tance, show him to be an accomplished master of his own native Tuscan.

HuRTER, Nomendator, II, 1530-32; d'Alenc"ON in Diet, de thiol, cath. (Paris, 1900), II, 812; Schdlte, Geschichte der Quell^n und Litteratur des Canonischen Rechts, (Stuttgart, 1880), III, 512 ; Feller, Biographie universelle (Paris. 1848), II. 2.

Stephen M. Donovan.

Bianchini, Fr.yncesco, a student of the natural sciences, and an historian, b. at Verona, Northern Italy, 13 December, 1662; d. at Rome, 2 March, 1729. At first he devoted himself to the study of mathematics, physics, and astronomy; later he also took a course in theology. In 1699 he was advanced to deaconship, but never became a priest. In 1684 he transferred his residence to Rome, where he found at once a protector in Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni, of whose library he became custodian. When the cardinal became Pope .Alexander VIII (1689-91) he still extended his favours to Bianchini; after Alexander's death, his nephew, also Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni, lodged the scholar in his own palace. Bianchini received also many honours and com- missions of trust from succeeding popes. In 1703 he was elected president of the society devoted to the study of historical antiquities; he was made secretary of the commission for the reform of the calendar and he was sent to Paris with the cardi- nal's hat destined for Rohan Soubise. During this journey he was received everywhere with con- sideration by the learned. The University of Oxford furnished the expenses of his sojourn in England. Benedict XIII (1724—30) appointed him historiog- rapher of the synofl held at the Lateran, Rome (1725). He was a member of many learned acad- emies in Italy and elsewhere. He was distinguished for "a great purity of life and an exceeding modesty of mind", as the canons of St. Mary Major expressed it in his epitaph. His chief works are: "Two Disser- tations on the Calendar and the Cycle of Julius Cae.sar, and the Paschal Canon of Si. Hippolytus" (Rome, 1703); "A Solution of the I'nsrhal Problem" (Rome, 1703); one volume of "A I'niversal History" (Rome, 1697); an edition of the "Liber Pontificalis" in four volumes, three of which were edited by him- self (Rome. 1718-28), and the fourth by his nephew, Giuseppe Bianchini (Rome, 1735). Besides the text of the lives of the popes the work contains learned introductions, various readings of the manuscripts.

copious notes by himself and others, and several documents relative to the history of the popes. It was republished in Migne, P. L., CXXVII-CXXVIIl.

HuRTER, Nomenclator, II; Duchesne, Etude sur le Lib. Pontif. (Paris, 1877), 118, 119.

Francis J. Schaefer.

Bianchini (Blanchini), Giuseppe, Itahan Ora- torian. Biblical, historical, and liturgical scholar, b. at Verona, 1704; d. in Rome, 1764. Clement XII and Benedict XlV, who highly appreciated his learning, entrusted him with several scientific labours. Bianchini had contemplated a large work on the texts of the Sacred Scriptures, "Vindiciae Canoni- carum Scripturarum Vulgatae latinae editionis", which was to comprise several volumes, but only the first, in which, among other things, are to be found fragments of the "Hexapla" (cod. Chisianus), was published (Rome, 1740). Much more important is his " Evangeliarium quadruplex latinae versionis antiquae", etc., 2 vols. (Rome, 1749). Among his historical labours may be mentioned the fourth volume which Bianchini added to the publication of his uncle, Francesco Bianchini, "Anastasii biblio- thecarii Vitae Rom. Pontif." (Rome, 1735); he also published the " Demonstratio historiae ecclesiasticae quadripartitae" (Rome, 1752-54). The chief litur- gical work of Bianchini is "Liturgia antiqua his- panica, gothica, isidoriana, mozarabica, toletana mixta" (Rome, 1746). He also undertook the edition of the works of Bl. Thomasius (Tomasi), but only one volume was issued (Rome, 1741).

VlLLAROSA, Memorie degli Hcrittori Filippini (Naples, 1837); M.\NGENOT, Joseph Bianchini el les anciennes versions latinos de la Bible (Amiens, 1892); Hdrter, Nomenclator, III, 71 sqq.

R. Bdtin.

Bianconi, Charles, merchant and philanthropist, b. 26 September, 1785, in the duchy of Milan; d. near Clonmel, Ireland, 22 September, 1875. At an early age he was sent to Ireland, as apprentice to an Italian printseller, became a distinguished and wealthy mer- chant, and was the first to establish (1815-58) through- out the island a system of rapid and cheap transporta- tion of persons and of government mail. He was an intimate friend of O'Connell, a promoter of Catholic Emancipation, a benefactor of many Catholic chari- ties, and a practical friend of the Catholic University at Dublin. The English postmaster general in his Report for 1857 said that "no living man has ever done more than he for the benefit of the sister king- dom". In the development of his v.ast transporta- tion system he displayed extraordinary energy and ingenuity, and did much to increase the resources of his adopted country, while he promoted in a remark- able way its social relations. His residence at Long- field, near Clonmel, was a centre of hospitality, and a source of much practical activity for the general W"elfare of his country.

O'Ryan, Charles Bianconi (Dublin, 1905), and Bianconi's life by his daughter, Mrs. Morgan John O'Connell (Dublin, 1885).

Thomas J. Sh.\h.\n.

Biard, Pierre, Jesuit missionary, b. at Grenoble, France, 1567; d. at Avignon, 17 November, 1622. In 1608 he was called from a chair of Scholastic theology and Hebrew at Lyons by Father Coton, the king's confessor and preacher, to take charge of the Jesuit mission in Acadia. As de Monts, the founder of Acadia, was a Calvinist, and a considerable number of the colonists were also of that religion, vehement opposition was made to the appointment of Biard and his companion, Edmond Masse, as missionaries. Through the interposition of the Marquise de Guer- chevillc, who purchased the vessel that was bringing out supplies, the Jesuits, after three years of waiting, were enabled to obtain passage by becoming part owners of the ship and cargo. They left France, 21 January, 1611, and arrived on Pcntccoat Day,