22 May, at Port Royal. They met with but little success. The predecessor of the missionaries, a secular priest named Josue Flesche, had baptized indiscriminately. This the Jesuits refused to do. The colonists, moreover, remained hostile, and viewed as a business speculation, the enterprise was a failure. Madame de Guercheville, who had succeeded de Monts as proprietor, finally sent out another vessel under La Saussaye, and ordered him to stop at Port Royal, and. taking the two Jesuits, found a colony elsewhere. Obeying instructions, La Saussaye sailed over to what is now Bar Harbor. The new estab- lishment was called Saint Sauveur. Tliis was in 1613. It was hardly begun when Samuel Argall came up from Virginia, plundered the colony, and took Biard and another Jesuit with four colonists to Jamesto^vIl where only the authority of Argall pre%ented them from being hanged. Another ex- pedition was fitted out to complete the destruction of Saint Sauveur and Port Royal, and the two Jesuits were compelled to accompany the marauders. Everj'thing was ruined and Biard and his compan- ion were made to appear as if they had instigated the attack. They sailed off with the attacking party who intended to return with them to the English colony, where they would probably have been executed, but the vessel on which they were held as prisoners was driven by storms across the ocean. Frequently they were on the point of being thro\\Ti overboard, but when the ship was compelled to enter the Port of Fayal in the Azores, Biard and his companions consented to remain in the hold lest their discovery should entail the death of their captor. A second time, upon entering MUford Haven, in Wales, the captain having no papers, and being in a French ship, was on the point of being hanged as a pirate. But Father Biard saved him by explaining the situa- tion to the authorities. The missionarj' was then sent to France, where he had to meet a storm of abuse because of the suspicion that he had helped in the de- struction of Port Royal. Champlain. however, vin- dicated him. He never returned to Canada, but resumed his work as professor of theologj', and after- wards became famous as a missionarj' in the south of France, and towards the end of his life was made military chaplain in the armies of the king. Lescar- bot, who was unfriendly to the Jesuit missionaries, speaks of Biard in flattering terms.
RocHEMON'TEIX, Les JcsuUes €t la Nouvelle France; Ch.uile- voix, Hist, de In Nouvelle France; Les Relations; (Euvres de Champlain, V, viii; Faillon. Colonie Fran^aise; Parkman, Pioneers of France in the New World.
T. J. Campbell.
Bibbiena (Bern.uido Dovizi) an ItaUan Car- dinal and comedy-writer, known best by the name of the town Bibbiena. where he was bom 4 Aug., 1470; d. at Rome, 9 Nov.. 1520. His obscure parentage did not prevent liim from securing a literarj- training at the hands of the best scholars and from associating with the most conspicuous men that Florence could boast. A jo\'ial temper and racy Tuscan wit enhancing the charm of good looks and courtly manners soon made him the pre- ceptor as well as the boon companion of Giovanm' dei Medici's merry hours. When the Medici were banished and sorrow followed mirth (Nov., 1494) it was seen that a gay man of the world could become a brave and steadfast friend. Not long after, the protection of Julius II and many honours at the Roman court were to be his reward. In 1513 his strenuous exertions on behalf of his hfelong patron secured tlie election of Giovarmi dei Medici to the pontifical throne. Such services Leo X repaid by bestownng on him the purple robe, ap- pointing him his treasurer and entrusting him with many important missions, among them a legation to France (1518). Later on, the cardinal's
strong sympathies for France lost him Leo's con- fidence. The storj-, however, that he was poisoneti. in spite of Gio\io and Grassi's reports, has abso- lutely no foundation. (Pastor, Geschichte der Papste, IV, Part I, Leo X.) As cardinal he stead- ily extended a generous pat- ronage to art. From Raphael, whose devotion he won, we have his best hkeness. His literarj' fame is mainly con- nected with the first good com- edy written in Italian prose, "La Calandra" (also, known as "11 Calandro" and "La C'alan- dria"), a dis- tinctly juvenile production, probably given for the first time at L'rbino, about 1507, and verj- elaborately performed at Rome, seven years later, in the presence of Leo X and Isabella Gonzaga d'Este. Marchioness of Mantua. Though marred by many scenes glaringly immoral, and though built upon the plot of Plautus's "Menoechmi", it possessed the features of modem comedy and won plaudits for its sparkling wit and fine characterization. Ariosto and Machia- velU imitated him in their plays. The latest edi- tion of "La Calandra" is in the "Teatro Italiano Antico" (Florence. ISSS).
Gaspary, Geschichte der italienischen Litteratur (Strasburg. 18SS), II. 577; Roscoe. Life of Leo X; Baxdini. // Bibbiena il ministro di Stato (Florence, 17601; Moretti. Bibbiena IJovizi e la Calandra in the Nuova Antologia (1SS2), 601, 623; Solerti, La rappresentazione deUa Calandra a Lione net 1548 (.Florence, 1901).
Edoardo S.\n Giov.vn'xi.
Bibiana, S.uxr. — ^The earliest mention in an au- thentic historical authority of St. Bibiana C^'ibiana), a Roman female martjT, occurs in the "Liber Pon- tificalis" where in the biography of Pope Simplicius (46S-4S3) it is stated that this pope "consecrated a basilica of the holy martjT Bibiana, which contained her body, near the 'palatiiuii Licinianum' " (ed. Duchesne, I, 249). This basilica still exists. In the fifth centurj-, therefore, the bodily remains of St. Bibiana rested within the city walls. We have no further historical particulars concerning the martjT or the circiunstances of her death; neither do we know why she was buried in the city itself. In later times a legend sprang up concerning her, connected with the Acts of the martyrdom of Sts. John and Paul and has no historical claim to belief. According to this legend, Bibiana was the daughter of a former prefect, Flavianus, who was banished by Julian the Apostate. Dafrosa, the wife of Flavianus, and his two daughters, Demetria and Bibiana, were also per- secuted by Julian. Dafrosa and Demetria died a natural death and were buried by Bibiana in their own house; but Bibiana was tortured and died as the result of her sufferings. Two days after her death a priest named John buried Bibiana near her mother and sister in her home, the house being later turned into a church. It is evident that the legend seeks to explain in this way the origin of the church and the presence in it of the bodies of the above mentioned confessors. The account contained in the martjTolo- gies of the ninth century is drawn from the legend.