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are French (a certain number of which are published in Belgium, Switzerland, and other countries than France); 135, German; 88, Italian; 55, English (of which ten are American); 13, Russian; 11, Dutch; 7, Flemish; 7, Spanish; 7, Croatian; 4, Swedish; 3, Portuguese; 2, Irish; 2, Hungarian; 1, Czech; 1, Po- lish; 1, Rumanian; 1, Dalmatian; and 1, Norwegian. Moreover, there are 9 printed in Greek, 6 in Latin, 4 in Armenian and 1 in Arabic. Finally, a large hall near the library has been set apart, and after October, 1907, it will be thrown open to foreign students who may wish to consult original sources of information likely to assist them in their re- searches.

The quotations of the Acta Sanctorum refer to three different editions. Tlie first, the original one, commonly called the Antwerp edition, has been sufficiently described in tlie above article. The vol- umes of the Antwerp collection were first reprinted at Venice from 1764 to 1770. They reached then to volume VI of September. The main difference be- tween this reimpression and the Antwerp edition lies in the fact that the supplementary additions to sun- dry commentaries printed by the BoUandists at the ■end of the single volumes, or of a set of volumes are transposed in the Venetian edition and joined to the commentary to which they refer; hence the contents of each volmiie are not in close correspondence in the volumes similarly marked in both editions. Moreover, many of the parerga or preliminary trea- tises scattered through the Antwerp collection have been brought together in three separate volumes. But the whole printing teems with typographical blunders. Lastly another reprinting of the Antwerp publication was undertaken by the Parisian editor, Victor Palni^, from 1863 to 1869, and carried on to the tenth volume of October. This edition repro- duces exactly, volume by volume, the original one, except for the months of January and June. The two big volumes of January have been divided into three, and in the volumes of June also some changes have been made in the disposition of matter, in order to render the use of them easier to readers. Besides, to each of the volumes of the first four months were added a few unpublished short notes (filling from one to six pages) of Daniel Papebroch, found in his papers and relating to the commentaries printed in the volume.

BoLLAND, Prmfatio aeneralis in Acta Sanctorum (at the beginning of vol. I for January); Papebroch, De vit{i, virtuli- bug et operibus Joannis BolUindi (at the beginning of vol. I for March); Papebroch, De vita . . . Godefridi Hensrhenii (at the beginning of vol. VII for Ma.v); J. Pien, De Vitd Danielis Fapehrochii (at the beginning of vol. VI for June); J. Van Hecke, De ratione unirerei operis [Bollandiani] (be- jsinning of vol. VII for October).

Ch. De Smedt.

BoUandus (Boll and). See Bollandists.

BoUig, JoHANN, distinguished Orientalist, b. near Diiren in Rhenish Prussia, 23 August, 1821; d. at Rome in 1895. He studied theology and Semitic languages at Rome, where he entered the Society of Jesus in 1853. In 1862-63 he sojourned in Syria as professor of theology for the native seminaries, at the same time pursuing his researches in Oriental literature. After his return to Rome, he was ap- pointed professor of Arabic and Sanskrit at the Roman College (afterwards the Gregorian t'ni- versity) and at the Sapienza. He was a member of the commission appointed by Pius IX to arrange the details of the Vatican Council and acted as pontifical theologian during the Council. For many years he was Consultor of the Congregation of the Propaganda for Oriental affairs. In 1880 he was appointed Prefect of the Vatican Library, which office he held till his death. Among his published ■works arc: "Brevis Chrestomathia arabica" (Rome, 1882); "Sti. Gregorii lib. carm. iambic", an ancient

Syriac translation (Beirut, 1895). He left many un- published writings on Oriental philology.

Catalogues of the Rom. Frov. S.J.; Herder, Kanversations- lei.. I, s. v.


Bologna, Archdiocese of. — History. — Bologna is the principal city in the province of the same name, Italy, and contains about 150,000 inhabitants. It was founded by the Etruscans, who called it Felsina. Later it fell into the hands of the Boii, a Gallic tribe, and from that time took the name of Bononia, whence the present form. The regions round about having been laid waste by the con- tinual wars, in 189 b. c. the Romans established a colony there, which was enlarged and beautified by Augustus. After Byzantium had broken the power of the Goths in Italy, Bologna belonged to the Ex- archate of Ravenna (536). By the donation of Pepin Bologna was made part of the patrimony of the Holy See, but during the disturbances of the ninth century was wrested from the popes. At the beginning of the ninth century it was laid waste during the incursions of the Hungarians. Otto I did much to restore the city to its former condition, giving it the privilege of enacting its own laws, and making it directly dependent on the imperial au- thority. Bologna was then governed by consuls. During the struggles between the empire and the popes, the city took the part of the latter and was enabled to assert its independence, which was defi- nitely recognized by Henry V in 1122. Bologna was among the first to join the Lombard League. From 1153 it was ruled by podestas, who were for the most part foreigners. From the accession of Fred- erick II, Bologna was rent into the two factions of Guelphs and Ghibellines, the former being in the majority. On 26 May, 1249, the inhabitants of Bologna in the battle of Fossalto conquered the troops of Frederick II under the leadership of King Enzio of Sardinia; Enzio himself was taken prisoner, and neither the threats nor the promises of Fred- erick availed to secure his liberty. He remained in captivity until his death, eleven years later, although for the rest he was always treated with the greatest consideration.

In 1276, in order more thoroughly to safeguard their communal liberty, the inhabitants of Bologna placed themselves under the protection of the Holy See, and Pope Nicholas III sent them as legate his nephew, Bertoldo Orsini, whom he also commissioned to reconcile the opposing factions. In the fourteenth century the preponderance of power was in the hands of the Pepoli family, but later passed to the Visconti of Milan, who alternated with the Bentivoglio family in holding the reins of power. At intervals the popes attempted to make their authority recognized, or else the city spontaneously recognized their sover- eignty (1327-34; 1340-47; 1360-76, through the efforts of Cardinal Albornoz; 1377-1401; 1403-11, during the pontificate of John XXIII; 1412-lC; 1420-28, under Cardinal Condulmer). In the be- ginning of the fifteenth century there were frequent popular uprisings against the nobility. From 1443 to 1506 three of the Bentivoglio family succeeded each other as masters of Bologna. In 1506 Julius II incorporated Romagna into the Papal States, Bologna included; the city, however, retained a great degree of communal autonomy. The papal authority was vested in a legate, ^\ho in the beginning was gen- erally a cardinal, later, however, only a titular bishop. In 1796 Bologna was occupied by the French and made a part of the Cisalpine Republic, and afterwards of the Italian Kingdom. In 1814 it was seized by the Austrians, who in 1815 restored it to the pope. From the time of its restoration, Bologna was the scene of a series of deep-seated agitations and revolts against the papal rule. These uprisings