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were repressed by Austrian troops. Finally, in 1859 Romagna, together with the Marches and Umbria, was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy.

Christianity in Bologna. — The only sources for the history of the beginnings of Christianity in Bologna are legendary accounts, according to which St. Apollinaris, disciple of St. Peter and first Bishop of Ra-\-enna, was the first to preach the Gospel in Bologna. The first bishop is said to have been St. Zama, who is supposed to have been ordained by Pope St. Dionysius (270). However, it may be main- tained with certainty that Christianity, and likewise the episcopate, in Bologna dates back to a more re- mote period. Duiing the persecution of Diocletian, Bologna was the scene of the martTiT-doms of Sts. Vitalis and Agricola, whose bodies were interred in a Jewish cemetery and only discovered in the time of St. Ambrose, in 392, as related by him in a letter (Ep. Iv), the authenticity of which, however, is questioned. The fact is referred to, perhaps, by Paulinus in his life of the saint, when he speaks of Ambrose taking to Florence some relics of tliese martyrs. It was possibly in the same persecution that the martj-rdom of St. Proculus occurred. The episcopal See of Bologna was first subject to the Metropolitan of Milan, and later, probably after Milan had fallen into the hands of the Lombards, it recognized the authority of the Metropolitan of Ravenna. In 1106 it was placed immediately under the Holy See. Finally, in 15S2 Gregory XIII raised the Bishop of Bologna to the dignity of a metropoli- tan, assigning him as suffragans the Sees of Imola, Cervia, Modena, Reggio, Parma, Piacenza, and Crema; to-day, however, only Imola and Faenza are suffragan to Bologna,

Among the Bishops of Bologna worthy of note are Sts. Faustinianus, Basil, and Eusebius, in the fourth century. About 400 there is record of St. Felix, succeeded about 430 by St. Petronius, who is ex- tolled for having restored the church of Bologna, and who later became patron of the city. His relics are preserved in the church of San Stefano. A num- ber of the Bishops of Bologna were later raised to the papal chair, as, for instance, John X; Cosimo Mig- liorati, who assumed the name of Innocent VII; Toniaso Parentuccelli, later Nicholas V; Giuliano della Rovere, who became Julius II; Alessandro Ludovisi, or Gregory XV; and Prospero Lanibertini, or Bene- dict XIV, The last two mentioned were born in Bologna. Other celebrated bishops were: Cardinal Filippo Caraffa (137S-S9); Cardinal Antonio Correr (1407-12); Blessed Nicolo, Cardinal Albergati (1417- 34); Cardinal Lorenzo Campeggio, known for the many embassies on which he was sent to Germany and England, in connexion with the Reformation and the marriage of Henry VIII (1523-25). After Bologna became an archiepiscopal see, almost all the metropolitans were cardinals, among whom may be mentioned: Gabriele Paleoti (1591-97), who left the cathedral as it exists to-day, built the epis- copal palace, and endeavoured to put the Tridentine reforms into execution in Bologna; ^'ineenzo Mal- vezzi (1754-75), to whom the cathedral and the seminary owed much; Carlo Opizzoni (1802-55); Michele Viale Preia (1855-60); Lucido Maria Parocchi (1877-82). Bologna was also the birthplace of the following popes, in addition to the two already mentioned: Honorius II (Lamberto Scannabecchi), Lucius II (Gherardo Caccianemici dell' Orso), Alex- ander V (Pietro Filargo), Gregorj' XIII (Ugo Buon- compagni), and Innocent IX (Giannantonio Facchi- netti).

Churches. — Chief among the sacred edifices of Bolo- gna is the cathedral, dedicated to St. Peter and erected by the commune in 910 to replace the ancient ca- thedral which stood outside the city walls. De- stroyed by fire in 1130, it was bvit rebuilt in 1165;

in its present form it dates from 1605, according to' plans drawn up by Magenta, a Barnabite. The facade, however, was designed by Alf. Torreggiani, who also added the first two chapels to the church. The majority of the paintings are by famous masters, as, for instance, \'entura da Bologna, Ercole Gra- ziani, Francesco Tadolini, Onofrio Zanotti, del Ba- gnacavallo (Bartolommeo Ramenghi), Ludovico Ca- racci, and others. There is also a lower church with five altars. Worthy of note is a crucifLx of cedar wood dating from the time of the old cathedral. The church of San Petronio, dedicated to the patron of the city, was built by order of the Secento, at public expense, in 1390, A competition was an- nounced for the plans, and among all the designs, the preference was given those of Antonio Vincenzi,

while the supervision of the work of erection was entrusted to Andrea Maufredi da Faenza. How ever,, the original drawings, providing for an octagonal dome 500 feet high, were not adhered to. The facade- still remains incomplete, only the lower part being covered with sculptures in marble. The ornamenta- tion of the larger door is the work of Pietro della Fonte; many of the figures compare favourably with the works of an age in which the art was more highly developed. In the architra'i'e is the Madonna and Child. The two naves are adorned with statues of Sts. Petronius and Ambrose. The carving of the doors was done by Sigismondo Bargelloso, aided by Andrea Magnani and Gabriele di Zaccaria. The two side doors are also adorned with magnificent carvings, the work of other artists. It is a three- naved church, the twenty-three chapels being adorned with the masterpieces of distinguished artists of different ages. Worthy of note is the statue of St, Anthony of Padua by Sansovino, A sun-dial is to be found there, likewise two clocks, among the first to be made in Italy with pendulums. In Bologna is also the church of Corpus Domini, founded by St, Catherine de' Vigri, commonly known as St. Catherine of Bologna, and adjoining it the monastery of the Poor Clares, In one of the chapels is pre- served the mummified body of the saint, together with many objects used by her during life. There is also a beautiful church of St, Dominic, close by the Dominican convent in which the death of St. Dominic occurred. The tomb of the saint is in itself a veritable rauseinn of works of art by tlie great masters. The casket was carved by Nicolo Pisano, and one of the angels was done by Michelangelo in his youth. The choir is beautifully inlaid with tinted wood, the work of Fra Damiano da Bergamo, a Dominican lay brother. The church is cruciform, and in one chapel of the cross is the tomb of King Ezzelino; in another that of Guido Reni.