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vealed; there was no change in his extremely simple manner of life, and every year he donated his surplus revenue to the needy priests of the Missionary College at Rome.

His best known ascetical works are: "Via Com- pendii ad Deum" (1657); "Principia et documenta vitae Christianse" (1673); "Manuductio ad ccelum (1658); and "Horologium Asoeticum" (Paris, 1676). The "Manuductio is often compared to the "Imita- tion of Clirist ' ' on account of the simplicity of the style in which the solid doctrine is taught. It has always been extremely popular. Besides passing through fourteen Latin editions in four decades, it has been translated into Italian, French, German, Armenian, and Spanish. The latest translation is in English by Sir Robert L'Estrange (A Guide to Eternity, London, 1900). Shortly after his ordination he col- lected together some of the most beautiful passages in the Fathers on the august Sacrifice of the Mass, and later published them in a booklet, which with certain additions grew into his "De Sacrificio Missse", a useful Mass book. In addition he composed several unpublished works, known as "Ascetici", for the instruction of members of his own order.

But his fame does not rest solely on his devotional writings. He was a deep student of antiquity, and so successful in treating of the use of the Psalter in the Christian Church (De Divina P,salmodia, Paris, 1663) that Cardinal Pallavicini urged him to under- take the history of the Sacrifice of the Mass. Realiz- ing the magnitude of the task he at first declined, but finally .set to work and after more than seven years' labour brought out his famous work familiar to all students of liturgy; "De Rebus Liturgieis" (Rome, 1671). It is a veritable encyclopedia of historic in- formation on all subjects bearing on the Mas.s, such as rites, churches, vestments, etc. Not least remark- able about these volumes, besides the wealth of material gathered together, are the classic purity, the manly vigour, and the charming simplicity of the Latin style. The best edition of this work is by Robert Sala (Turin, 1747-53), who also in 1755 brought out a very interesting volume of Bona's letters. The first of the many editions of his complete works was published at Antwerp in 1677.

Fabroni, VitfF ItaloTum doctrind excellentium, etc. (Pisa, 1778-1805), XIII, 7; Mazzuchelli. GH scriltori d'ltalia (Brescia. 1753-63, II; Part III, 15151; Bertolotti, Vita Joannis Bona (Asti, 1677); Goujet, Vie du cardinal Bona in the French translation of De principiis vitce Christiana (Paris. 1728); DupiN, BibliotMque des auteurs eccUs. du XVII^ si^cle (Paris, 1708\ III. 50.

Leo F. O'Neil.

Bonacum, Thom.\s. See Lincoln, Diocese op.

Bona Fides. See F.\ith.

Bonagratia of Bergamo (or Perg.\mo), Friar Minor, tlicologian, and canonist, date of birth un- known; d. at Munich, 1343. Before his entrance into religion, he was known as Boncortese, a name which was adopted at times by Clement V who used to call him dilectus filius Fraler Boncortese, dictus Bonagratia de Pergamo. Though Bonagratia took an active and important part in the controversy with the so-called Spiritual Friars, especially with Uber- tino of Casale, one of their leaders, his biography is interesting principally because of his connexion with the famous dispute concerning the po\'erty of Christ. The contest began at Narbonne in 1321 between the Dominicans and Franciscans, and the main question at issue seems to have been whether it is heretical to assert that Christ and His Apostles possessed no property either in particular or in common. On account of the important bearing of the controversy on the rule of the Friars Minor, a general chapter of the order was convoked at Perugia, in June of the year 1322, and the minister general, together with the other members of the chapter, caused two letters or communications to be

published in which the mind of the chapter regarding the controversy is set forth at considerable length, and with unmistakable distinctness; while Bona- gratia was chosen to be the representative of the chapter before the papal Curia at Avignon. Dis- pleased at the action of the chapter at Perugia, Pope John XXII published the Bull "Ad con- ditorem canonum" in which he renounces the do- minion of all the goods of the Friars Minor hitherto assumed by the Roman pontiffs, and declares that the ownership of a thing cannot be separated from its actual use or consumption. At the pub- lic consistory held in January, 1323, Bonagratia appeared in the presence of the pope and cardinals, and with more zeal perhaps than discretion openly opposed the papal constitution. His bold- ness, however, was of little avail, for the BuU "Ad conditorem" was again promulgated in lengthier form, but bearing its previous date of 8 December, 1322, and the audacious Bonagratia himself was east into prison. He was released after a year's confinement, and in 1330 followed the Emperor Louis of Bavaria to Munich, together with the Ex-Minister General Michael of Cesena and William of Occam. Still under sentence of excommunication, Bonagratia died there and was buried in the Barfiisserkirche, where Michael of Cesena and William of Occam also found their last resting-place. Among the writings of Bonagratia may be mentioned his "Articuli pro- bationum", composed in confutation of the errors of Ubertino of Casale above mentioned.

Wadding. Annates Minorum. VI, 401-405; VII, 1-7; Bullarium FrancUcanum, V, 233-246; Hurter, Nomenctator. IV. 483; Analecta Franciscana (Quaracchi, 1887), II, 81, 89, passim; Othon de Pavie, L AQuitaine Seraphique (Auch, 1900), XIX, 188, 190.

Stephen M. Donovan.

Bonal, pRANfois de. Bishop of Clermont, b. 1734 at the castle of Bonal, near Agen; d. at Munich, 1800. He had been Vicar-General of Agen and Director of the Carmelite Nuns in France when he was made Bishop of Clermont, 1776. On the eve of the Revolution, as he was warning his diocesans against the license of the press, he foretold the visitations of God that were coming. He went as one of the deputies of the clergy to the Etats- Gdneraux of 1789, where he distinguished himself by his moderation and firmness. To Target who spoke of the "God of peace" he replied that the God of peace was also the God of order and justice. From his prison Louis XVI sent for his opinion as to whether he should receive Paschal Commimion. The answer was full of sympathy, yet the unfortu- nate monarch was advised to abstain " for having sanctioned decrees destructive of religion". Bonal was alluding chiefly to the civil constitution of the clergy. Having declined to take the constitutional oath, he was compelled to leave his diocese and country. He passed to Flanders and later to Holland, was captured and sentenced to deporta- tion by the French, but succeeded in making his escape and spent the last years of his life in various cities of Germany. He is the author of a "Testa- ment spirituel".

Feller. Biographie Universetle (Paris, 1866); de Creve- ctEUR, Journat d\-indrien Duquesnoy (Paris, 1894).


Bonal, R.WMOND, French theologian and founder of the Congregation of the Priests of St. Mary (Bona- lists), b. at Villefranche in Rouergue, 15 August, 1600; d. at Agde, H^rault, France, c. 1653. He studied classics and philosophy with the Jesuits at Cahors; theology and canon and civil law at the LTniversity of Toulouse, where he received the degree of Doctor in Theology in 1628. In 1632, he con- ceived the idea of organizing a community of priests in whose life and labours should be exemplified the spirit of St. Francis de Sales. With two other