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is expressly made: "It is now generally admitted that the part played by Bonner was not that attril> uted to him by Foxe, of a cruel bigot who exulted in sending his victims to the stake. The number of those put to death in his diocese of London was un- doubtedly disproportionately large, but this would seem to have been more the result of the strength of the reforming element in the capital and in Essex, than of the emplojTnent of exceptional rigour; while the evidence also shows that he himself patiently dealt with many of the Protestants, and did his best to induce them to renounce what he conscientiously believed to be their errors.

Bonner's wTitings include "Responsum et Exhor- tatioinlaudemSacerdotii" (1553); "Articles to be en- quired of in the General Visitation of Edmund Bishop of London" (1554); " Homelies sette forth by Ed- dmune Byshop of London, . . . to be read within his diocese of London of all Parsons, \-j'cars and curates, unto their parishioners upon Sondayes and holy days" (1555). There was also published under his name a catechism, probably v\Titten by his chaplains. Harps- field and Pendleton, entitled "A profitable and nec- 3ssary doctrine" (1554; 2d ed. 1555). He also -nTote the preface to Bishop Gardiner's " Book of Obedience " (1534).

Stalf Papers of Henry \ III; Dodd, Church History (London, 1737), Part III, Bk. II, art.. 3: M.^itland, Essays on the Refor- Ttation in England (London. 1849). Essays III. XVII. XVIII, XX; Gli.LOW, Bih. Diet. Eng. Cath. (London. 188o\ I, 260-265: LiAlRDXER in Diet. Sat. Biog. (London. 1886), V, 356-360: Bridgett and Knox, Quern Eliz. and the Cath. Hierarchy London. 1889); Stone. History of Mary I (London. 19011; Phillips, Extinction of the Ancient Hierarchy London, 19051.

Edwin Burton.

Bonnetty, Augustix, a French writer, b. at Entre- ^•aux (dept. of Basses-Alpes) 9 May, 1798; d. at Paris, 26 March, 1879. In 1815 he entered the seminary it Digne and studied for the priesthood. After ■ompleting his philosophical and theological studies, IS he was too young to be ordained, he went to Marseilles as private tutor in an excellent family. He soon felt that his mission was to use science and philosophy in the defence of the Church and to remain a lajmian. In 1825 he went to Paris, and five years later founded the " Annales de philosophie phr^tienne" (first number 31 July, 1830) which he edited until his death. His main object was to show the agreement of science and religion, and to point 3ut how the various sciences contributed to the demonstration of Christianity. In 1838 he also took up the direction of the " I'niversite catholique " Founded two years before by Gerbet, de, le Seorbiac, and de Montalembert. Having be-

'ome the sole owner of this re\-iew in 1846, he sus-

pended its publication, in 1855, in order to devote liimself exclusively to the "Annales". Among the main features of the "Annales" was the attempt to show the universality of a primitive revelation which is recognizable even in the mj'ths and fables

>( all nations. But Bonnetty went farther, exag-

gerating the necessity of this primitive revelation, ind minimizing the value of reason in attaining truth. This tendency to the system known as " tra- litionalism " soon drew the attention of the ecclesias-

ical authorities. A report was sent to the Congrega-
ion of the Index by Archbishop Sibour of Paris, and

•,wo years later (1855) Bonnetty was asked to sign

he following four propositions
" (1) Although faith

s superior to reason, yet no discord or disagreement

an ever be found between them, since both proceed

rom one and the same unchangeable source of truth, jod infinite in perfection, and thus are of mutual ussistance. (Encyclical of Pius IX, 9 November, i846.) (2) Rea-soning can demonstrate with cer- ainty the existence of God, the spirituality of the loul, and the freedom of man. Faith is posterior to •evelation, and in consequence cannot consistently 11 —43

be adduced to prove the existence of God against an atheist, or the spirituality and freedom of the rational soul against an adherent of naturalism and fatalism. (Proposition subscribed to by Bautain, 8 September, 1840.) (3) The use of reason precedes faith, and, with the help of revelation and grace, leads man to faith. (Prop, subscribed to bv Bautain, 8 September, 1840.) (4) The method used by St. Thomas, by St. Bonaventure, and, after them, by other scholas- tics, does not lead to rationalism, nor does it explain why, in modern schools, philosophy should fall into naturalism and pantheism. Hence these doctors and masters cannot be reproached for using that method, especially with the approval, at least tacit of the Church. (Prop, contradictorj' to propositions, extracted from different passages of Bonnetty.) "

It must be noted that in the letter sent at the same time as these propositions by Father Modena, the secretary of the Congregation of the Index, to Mon- signor Sacconi, the papal nuncio in Paris, it was stated that Bonnetty's attachment to the Holy See and to Catholic doctrines was never sus- pected. The intention was not to pronounce any judgment declaring his opinions "erroneous, suspi- cious, or dangerous", but only "to prevent the possible consequences, proximate or remote, which others might deduce from them, especially in matters of faith". Bonnetty, without any hesitation, gave his full assent to the above propositions. He de- clared that he had meant aU along to defend these doctrines, and that he would hereafter endeavour to do so with greater accuracy.

Bonnetty was a member of the "Soci^t6 des Etudes litteraires", the "Association pour la defense de la religion catholique", the "Societe asiatique", and the "Roman Academy of the Catholic Religion". He was also a Icnight of the Order of St. Gregorj' the Great and of the Order of Pius IX. In addition to his numerous articles in the "Annales de philosophie chretienne" and the "Universite catholique", he wrote the following works most of which, however, were first published as articles in the Annales: " Beautes de I'histoire de I'Eglise" (Paris, 1841); "Le christianisme et la philosophie" (Paris, 1845); "Table de tons les auteurs editfe par le cardinal Mai" (Paris, 1850); "Documents historiques sur la religion des Romains" (Paris, 1867-78); 'Diction- naire raisonn6 de diplomatique", based on that of Dom de Vaines (Paris, 1863-65); a translation of the Latin work by Father de Premare, a Jesuit missionarj- in China (1666-1734), "Vestiges des principaux dogmes chr^tiens tir& des anciens livres chinois" (1879).

Annales de philosophie chretienne, passim; Dedotje. Augustin Bonnetty. ibidem (1879, I). XCVI. 348-441; Polybihlion (1879). I. 454; Ddblanchy in Diet, de thiol, cath., 11, 1019.


Bonosus, Bishop of Sardica, a heretic in the latter part of the fourth centurj'. Against the common teaching of the Church he held that, after Jesus. Mary had several other children. The Council of Capua (391), before which the matter was brought, did not pass any judgment on it, but referred it to the Metropolitan Anysius of Thessalonica and the other bishops of lUyria. Tiiey condemned Bonosus and tried to exclude him from his church. In a letter to the same bishops Pope Siricius approves the sentence and also condemns the opinion that Marj- did not always preserve her virginity. Notwithstanding his condemnation, and the prudent advice of St. Ambrose to submit. Bonosus continued to exercise the episco- pal functions, to consecrate bishops and ordain priests. According to two letters of Pope Inno- cent I, one to Martian of Naissa (409), and the other to the bishops of Macedonia (414), those or- dained by Bonosus before his condemnation were to be received in the Church without a new ordina-