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)riest. His followers called themselves Christians and ■onsidered their faith the only true one. In Bosnia hey were named Paterines. The Paterines, or Bogo- nili. rejected marriage, forbade intercourse with those )f other faiths, disbelieved in war, in any execution )f human beings, in oaths, in seeking for wealth, and n subjection to secular authority. The Paterines creatly increased in nvnnber and influence in Bosnia ifter the accession to their faith of Ban Kulin, and

ained numerous adherents in the neighboming dis-

ricts of Croatia and Slavonia and in the cities of the Dalmatic coast. A similar sect, the Albigenses, ap- jeared at the same time. At the beginning of the hirteenth century even the Bosnian bishop was an idherent of the Paterines; Pope Gregory IX, there- ore, deposed him in 1233 and raised to the see Jo- lannes, a German Dominican from Wildhausen in iVestphalia. It is to the great credit of the Domini- •ans that they entered upon a successful spiritual •ampaign against the Paterines in Bosnia and Dal- natia. The Franciscans who had an intimate knowl- >dge of tlie common people had even greater success, riiey not only brought back the population of the Dalmatic coast to the Church, but they extended heir spiritual activity to the interior of the country, i'et notwithstanding these efforts and those of the 5opes, in spite of two Bosnian crusades, and of the ransfer of the Diocese of Bosnia to the Archdio- ■ese of Kalocsa in Hungary, the sect was not sup- pressed. The formal return of the Bosnian nobles ind monarchy to Catholicism was merely superficial.

The Turkish conquest of 1463 drove a large part of he Catholic population out of Bosnia. This led the ■ourageous Franciscan monk, Angelus Zojezdovic, to

o before the Sultan Mohammed II to call his atten-

ion to the fact that the Christian inhabitants were

oing out of Bosnia in all directions. The sultan, not

ishing to have the newly conquered province de- Kipiilated, granted as a favour to the Franciscans hal Christians should be allowed the free exercise of licir religion. From that time until the present the •raniiscan Order has been the only shield of the 'hristians in these two territories.

Church Statistics. — After the Turkish conquest the iisho|5ric of Bosnia had only a nominal existence. In 735 the diocese was reorganized as the Vicariate Ipostolic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and its adminis- ration confided to the Franciscans. Since 1846 the ountry has been divided into two \'icariates. Three ears after the Austrian occupation Pope Leo XIII rected the Archdiocese of Seraje\'o with the suffragan lioceses of Banjaluka in tlie north-western part of Bosnia, Mostar-Duvno in the northern part of Herze-

ovina, and Markana-Trebinje in the southern part

if the same province. The Diocese of Markana- "rebinje which was founded in 870 has no bishop of ts own but is administered by the Bishop of Mostar- Juvno. The training of the secular priests in all four lioceses is in the hands of the Jesuits. The other iiale religious orders represented arc : the Franciscans I'ho possess 17 monasteries, and have almost entire harge of the work of the sacred ministry in the Arch- r-i' of Serajevo and the Diocese of Mostar-Duvno; lid the Trappists, with 3 monasteries and 182 mem- icrs. The female congregations are: the Sisters of ilercy, with 12 convents; the Daughters of Divine ^ove, 5 convents; the Sisters of the Precious Blood, I convents; the School Sisters, 1 convent.

The Austrian occ\ii)ati()n of Bosnia and Herzego- ina since 1878 has not only done much for the mate- ial prosperity of these provinces, but has also been f great assistance to the Catholic religion. This is hown by a comparison with earlier years. In 1850 he two territories contained 150,000 Cathohc in- abitants; in 1874, 185,503; in 1897, 334,142, or one- uurth of the whole population, and in 1907,334,000. ibout 1880 there were no Catholic families in the

district between Gradisca and Banjaluka, now there are 10 monasteries in this region. Before the Austrian occupation there were only 7 Catholic families in Trebinje; Trebinje has now several parishes and churches. In Herzegovina 8 parishes, 25 priests, and 36,000 Catholics have increased to 45 parishes, 100 priests, and 110,000 Catholics. The many churches, monasteries, school-houses, etc., which have come into existence since 1878 are proofs of the advance in intelligence and religion. Both territories show how beneficent has been the action of Austria in the Bal- kan Peninsula. In the agreement made between Austria-Hungary and Turkey of 21 April, 1879, the former country bound itself to protect in Bosnia and Herzegovina the religious liberty of the inhabitants as well as of temporary residents. This agreement includes Catholics. The regulations in regard to mar- riage and divorce, as well as the exemption of the clergy from public services and military duty, are about the .same as those in Austria. The cemeteries are still denominational institutions and are reserved even more exclusively than in Austria for the ad- herents of each faith.

Vjekoslav, Gesch, Bosniens von den dltesten Zeilen bis zum Verfalle des Konigreiches, Germ. tr. from the Croatian by von BoJNicic (Leipzig. 1885); Supan, Oesterreich-U n{/arn in Lan- derkunde von Europa (Viemia. Prague, and Leipzig. 1889), pt. 1, Div. 11; Bosnia und Herzegovina in Die osterreich.-ungar. Monarchie in Wort und Bild (Vienna, 1901); Schweiger- Lerchenfeld, Bosnien, das Land und siine Bewohner (Vienna, 1879); Die Occupation Bosniens und der Herzegovina durch k. k, Truppen, from the royal and imperial war-archives (6 pts., Vienna, 1879, 1880): T. von Asboth, Bosnian und Herzegovina (4 pts., Vienna, 1888); Wissenschaftl. Miiieilungen aus Bosnien und der Herzegovina, publication of the National Museum at Serajevo (13 vols., Vienna, 1893-190.5); Hohnes, Altertumer der Herzegovina und der siidl. TeiU Bosniens (Vienna, 1882); ScnNELLER, Die staatsrechll. Stellung von Bosnieri und der Herzegovina (Leipzig, 1S92); Correspondence Rejecting Affairs

in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Eng. Foreign Ofnce, 1876 );

Mll.LER, Travels and Politics in the Near East (London, 1899); Statesman's Year Book, (London, 1907).

Karl Klaar.

Boso, first Bishop of Merseburg, in the present Prus- sian Pro\'ince of Saxony, and Apostle of the Wends, d. November, 970. He was a Benedictine monk of St. Emmeram in Ratisbon whence he w-as sum- moned to the court of Otto I. The emperor, con- sidering the conversion of the lately subjugated Wends indispensable to the security of the German Empire, sent Boso to Christianize them. In the beginning Boso's mission appeared useless, owing to the hate of the Wends for the Germans who had deprived them of their liberty. Boso, however, being a true apostle, did not despair, but studied the language of the Wends in order to preach to them in their own tongue. They appreciated the unselfish devotion with which Boso worked for their temporal and spiritual welfare, and their hatred soon turned into love. In 968 Boso was able to provide for the creation of three new sees, Merseburg, Meissen, and Zeitz. Being given his choice he selected Merseburg as his bishopric; Hugo, another Benedictine monk, became Bishop of Zeitz, and Burchard, of Meissen. All three were consecrated on Christmas Day, 968, by their metro- politan, Adalbert of Magdebiu-g. Boso continued his missionary labours, but died on a visit to his native Bavaria.

Thietmah, Chronicon Mersel urgense, ed. Lappenberq, in Mon. derm. Hist.: Scrip.., II., 750; Hauck, Kirchengesch, Deulschlandt (Leipzig. 1906). Ill, 95 sqo.

Michael Ott.

Boso (Breakspear), third English Cardinal, date of birth uncertain; d. at Rome, about 1181. He was a Benedictine monk of St. Albans Abbey and the nephew of Adrian IV. Though this relationship was on the maternal side, Cardella states that Boso as well as Adrian IV bore the surname of Breakspear. He had a reputation not only for piety, but also for learning, and was esteemed by contemporary wTiters