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as among the most eminent theologians of his age. He compiled or wrote the lives of several eleventh and twelfth century popes, among them the life of his uncle, and indulged in the lighter accomplishment of versifying, examples of his poetic powers stiU existing in the Cotton MSS. in the British Museum, in the form of metrical lives of saints. He followed his uncle to Rome; and on the latter's elevation to the Papal Chair, was created by him Cardinal-Deacon of the title of Sts. Cosmas and Damian, in December, 1155, and was also appointed Camerlengo of the Holy See. Adrian sent Boso on a mission to Portu- gal; for what precise purpose does not transpire, but the fact is attested by the registers of Pope Innocent HI. He also confided to him the governorship of the Castle of Sant' .\ngelo, being somewhat suspicious of the fidelity of the Roman populace. When Adrian IV died in 1159, dissensions arose in the conclave as to the choice of his successor, the result of which was the creation of a scliism lasting seventeen years. Four cardinals in the imperial interest voted for Cardinal Octavian, who assumed the name of Victor IV, but he was acknowledged only by the Germans. On the verj' day of Adrian's burial in the Vatican basilica, 5 September, Cardinal Boso, who appears to have taken the lead, withdrew \nth the majority, twenty-three, of the cardinals within the fortress of Sant' Angelo to escape the vengeance of the anti- pope, and straightway elected as pope. Cardinal Rolando (Bandinelli) of Siena, who was consecrated under the name of Alexander III. The new pope was not unmindful of his obligations to Boso, and soon (1163) promoted him Cardinal-Priest of the title of St. Pudentiana. When Alexander made his memorable journey to Venice to receive the submis- sion and allegiance of the Emperor Frederick, and to ratify the "Peace of Venice" (24 June, 1177) which closed the schism, he was accompanied by Boso. Alexander also entrusted Boso with a mission to Tuscany, an event attested by the registers of Alexander IV. Boso's name appears attached to many Bulls, both of Adrian IV and of Alexander III.

D-Url. Nat. Biogr., V, 421; Cardella, Mmoru Stonche de' Cardinali: Eggs. Purpura docla (Munich, 1714-29); Duchesne, Liber Pontif., II, xxxix-.xliii, 351-446; Wattenbach, Deutsch- landa Gsschichtsquellen, 6th ed., II. 331; Redter. Aleian- der III (1860-64); Jaffe. Regeata RR. PP., II, s. v\., Adrian IV, Alexander III.

Hexry Norbert Birt.

Bossu, J.4CQUES Le, French theologian and Doc- tor of the Sorbonne, b. at Paris 1546; d. at Rome 1626. He entered the Benedictine Order at the Royal .\bbey of St. Denis, of which he became claustral prior. He was preceptor to the Cardinal de Guise and took a prominent part in the Cathohc League and the disputes concerning the successor to Henry III, whose death he considered to be a just punishment. The accession of Henry IV, against whom he had written, and the execution of de Guise in 1587 necessitated his lea\'ing France in 1591, and he went to Rome, where he entered the ser\'ice of the Curia. He was made a consultor of the Congregation de Auxiliis, established in 1599 to settle the contro- versy on grace between the Dominicans and the Jesuits. On its dissolution, in 1607, he desired to return to France, but the pope, Paul V, kept him in Rome. His cliief work consisted of ".\nimadver- siones" against twenty-fi'^'e propositions of Molina, a Spanish Jesuit who had wTitten a book on grace, de- fending the doctrines of Scotus against those of the Dominicans. The " Animadversiones" were pub- lished by .\ntonio Rajmaldo, the Dominican, in 1644. Le Bossu 's " Diarium Congregationis de Auxiliis" has unfortunately perished.

ZiEGELBAUEH, Hitt. LU. O.S.B. (AugsbuTg, 1754), III, 371; HuRTEH, Nomenclator (Innsbruck, 1892). I, 270.

G. Cyprian Alston.

Bossuet, Jacques-Beniqne, a celebrated French

bishop and pulpit orator, b. at Dijon, 27 September, 1627; d. at Paris, 12 April, 1704. For more than a century his ancestors, both paternal and maternal, had occupied judicial functions. He was the fifth son of B^nigne Bossuet, a judge in the Parliament of Dijon, and Madeleine Slochet. He began his classical studies at the College des Godrans, conducted by the Jesuits, in Dijon, and, on his father's ap- pointment to a seat in the Parliament of Metz, he was left in his native town, under the care of his uncle, Claude Bossuet d'.\iseray, a renowmed scholar. His extraordinary ardour for study gave occasion to the schoolboy joke, deriving his name from Bos suctus aratro. In a very short time, he mastered the Greek and Latin classics. Homer and Virgil were his favourite authors, while the Bible soon be- came his tivre de chcvet. Speaking of the Scriptures, he used to say: "Certe, in liis consenescere, in his immori, summa votorum est." Early destined to the Cliurch, he received the tonsure when he was only eight years old, and at the age of thirteen lie obtained a canonicate in the cathedral of Metz. In 1642, he left Dijon and went to Paris to finish his classical studies and to take up philosophy and theology in the College de Navarre. A year later he was introduced by Amauld at the Hotel de Ram- bouillet, where, one evening at eleven o'clock, he delivered an extempore sermon, which caused Voiture's remark: "I never heard anybody preach so early nor so late." A Master of .\rts in 1644, he held his first thesis (tentativa) in theology, 25 January, 1648, in the presence of the Prince de Cond6. He was ordained sub-deacon the same year, and deacon the following year, and preached his first sermons at Metz. He held his second thesis (sorbmiica) 9 November, 1650. For two years, he lived in re- tirement, preparing himself for the priesthood under the direction of St. Vincent de Paul, and was or- dained IS March, Lj52. A few weeks later, the degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred upon him. Appointed Archdeacon of Sarrebourg (January, 1652), he resided for seven years at Metz, devoting himself to the study of the Bible and the Fathers, preaching sermons, holding controversies with Protestants, and yet, finding time for the secular affairs for which he was responsible, as a mem- ber of the Assembly of the Three Orders. In 1657 he was induced by St. Vincent de Paul to come to Paris and give himself entirely to preaching.

Though living in Paris, Bossuet did not sever his connexion with the cathedral of Metz; he con- tinued to hold his benefice, and was even appointed dean in 1664, when his father, a widower, had just received the priesthood and become a canon of the same cathedral. There are extant one hundred and thirty-seven sermons which were delivered by Bos- suet between 16.59 and 1669, and it is estimated that more than one hmidred have been lost. In 1669 he was appointed Bishop of Condom, without being obliged to reside in his diocese, was consecrated 21 September, 1670, but, obeying scruples of con- science, resigned his bishopric a year later, in which year, also, he was elected to the French Academy. Appointed preceptor to the Dauphin, 13 September, 1670, he threw himself with in- defatigable energy into his tutorial functions, composing all the books deemed necessary for his pupil's instruction, models of handwriting as well as manuals of philosophy, and himself giving all the lessons, three times a day. When his functions as preceptor ended (16S1), he was appointed to the bishopric of Meaux. He took a prominent part in the Assembly of the French Clergy in 1682. Unlike the court bishops, Bossuet constantly resided in his diocese and busied himself with the. details of its administration. In that period he completed his long-interrupted works of historical controversy,