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great Carmelite reformer. His "Vie de Sainte Th^rese, ^crite par elle-meme" (Paris, 1852), passed tlirough twelve editions, and was translated into German and Dutch. His " CEuvres de Sainte The- resa", in three volumes (Paris, 1852-54-56), reached a third edition in 1860. "CEuvres spirituelles du Saint Pierre d'Alcantara" (Paris, 1862), Father Caraffa's "School of Divine Love" (Lyons, 1863), and a new translation of "The Following of Christ" (Poitiers, 1864) are three of the eight works issued in two years. Revised editions of Father Mumford's ■'Purgatory" (Paris, 1863), of St. Francis de Sales' "Treatise on the Love of God" (Paris, 1864), and of "The Spiritual Works of St. Francis Borgia" (Paris, 1869) are valuable contributions to ascetic theologj-. "Saint Joseph d'apres les saints et les maitres de la vie spirituelle" (Paris, 1863) is Father Boui.x's own original contribution to religious literature. One of his most valuable services was the publication, for the first time, of the "Memoriale" of Pierre Lefe\Te, (Bl. Peter Faber) one of the first companions of St. Ig- natius Loyola, in the original Latin and in a French translation (Paris, 1873). This work was translated into English by Father H. J. Coleridge, S.J. (London, 1873). Father Bouix translated into French the let- ters of St. Ignatius (Paris, 1870) and Father du Font's "Life of Father Alvarez" (Paris, 1873). He pub- lished the "ffiu\Tes spirituelles" of Father Jean-Jo- seph Surin in three volumes (Paris, 1879-82). The translation of Leonard Lessius's "Les noms diWns" (Paris, 1882) was one of the last works from the pen of this indefatigable WTiter, whose many years of labour enriched the literatiu-e of France with pop- ular spiritual books of sound Cathohc theology.

DuTOUQUET in Diet, de thiol, cath., II, 1091-92; Som.mer- TOGEL, Bibl., I, 1922-28.

Patrick H. Kelly.

Boulainvilliers, He.vri, Count of, b. at Saint- Saire (Seine-Inferieure) France, 11 October, 1658; d. at Paris, 23 January, 1722. He was one of the first French historians to write the history of the institu- tions or fundamental laws of the nation and, although systematic and decidedly partial, was none the less a pioneer in this particular line of work. Until the death of his father in 1697, he followed a military career, but some complications concerning an estate obliged him to make a close investigation of his family titles and tliis it was that led to his becoming an liistorian. Like Saint-Simon, Boulainvilliers was saturated with ultra-aristocratic notions and was also an ardent adherent of the old feudal system, his books being a long, violent tirade against the French monarchy which, according to him, was responsible for the gradual ruin of the privileges of the nobility and the annihilation of feudalism.

The Franks, according to his doctrine, established themselves in Gaul by right of conquest; they di- ided its land among themselves and they exercise public authority. They constitute the French nation; they are Frenchmen. Everj' Frencliman is free and independent, is supreme in his domain, in his fee, where he admmisters justice to his subjects. The king is merely a civil magistrate chosen to settle the disputes of private individuals; he has no special jower over the life, property, or liberty of other frenchmen who are in no wise his subordinates. Frenchmen who belong to the nobility are all on an quality: they are the peers of the king and of his elatives. Relationship with kings confers no rank ven upon descendants in the male line. Such is he feudal system as claimed by Boulainvilliers to >e the only one that is just, legitimate, and eon- ormable to the reality of history.

Now, what cau.sed Frenchmen or nobles to be lispossessed of their rights? First, the Crusades. To defray the expenses of these expeditions many loblemen either mortgaged or sold their fees and

wealthy plebeians, who were not noble, but, according to Boulainvilliers, "ignoble", thus became the owners of fees and, by introducing them.selves into the nobility, corrupted it. Next came the ignorance of the lords or owners. The ignorance and negligence of the lords rendering them generally incompetent to discharge the functions that rightfully belonged to them, the principal of which was to dispense justice in their fees, they soon transferred all their judicial authority to clerks or jurists. Thanks to the dignity of their role, these clerks or jurists soon became as important as the lords and thus originated the noblesse de la robe (nobility of the long robe) which Boulainvilliers considers a monstrosity.

Finally came the policy of the Capetian Kings which Boulainvilliers regards as chiefly instrumental in ruining feudalism and therefore the French nation. This policy consisted in adding the great fees to the royal domain by reason of conquest, piu'chase, or marriage, with the result that the Kings of France assumed an importance theretofore unkno\\Ti to them, and which soon became entirely dispropor- tionate; while the lords, fascinated by the brilliancy of the royal courts, instead of remaining the peers of these kings, became their servants. The kings diminished the power of the French nobles still more by favouring the emancipation of the com- munes and raising to the ranks of the nobility ple- beians whom they entrusted with high offices to which they had no right. Moreover, they admitted to seats in the States General, which should have been composed exclusively of representatives of the French, delegates from among the lower clergj' and liberated serfs, and of course this arbitrary measure completed the overthrow of the nobility. Such then, is the teaching set forth in Boulainvilliers's three most important works: "Histoire de I'ancien gouverne- ment de France", "Lettres sur les Parlements ou Etats-Generaux", and "Essais sur la noblesse" which, taken as a whole, constitute an earnest plea for feudalism against monarchism. These works, written by Boulainvilliers for his grandchildren, did not appear until after his death. The "Histoire de I'ancien gouvernement de la France" with four- teen historical " Lettres sur les Parlements ou Etats- G^n^raux" were published in Amsterdam and the Hague in 1727, the "Essais sur la noblesse" (contain- ing a dissertation by the late Count of Boulain- villiers on the origin and decline of the nobility) com- ing out in Amsterdam, 1732. It is only within the last twenty-five years that Boulainvilliers' works have been duly appreciated and their conclusions taken up by the historic school of which Fiistel de Coulanges was the chief representative.

Rene Doumic.

Boulanger, Andre de (Petit-Pere Andre), a French monk and preacher, b. at Paris in 1578; d. 27 September, 1657. He was the son of a President of the Pariement (High Court) of Paris. At an early age he entered the Augustinian Order and became a well-known preacher, being heard for over half a cen- tmy in most of the great pulpits of France. Boulanger lived at a period when the jocose style of preach- ing, introduced by such men as Menot and Maillard, .still lingered, and he made large use of the burlesque, notwithstanding its bad taste, in his own preaching. It is indeed this habit of jesting that has preserved his name. Boileau refers to Boulanger when, speak- ing of trivial plays on words and witticisms, he wTites: L'avocat au palais en h^rissa son style, Et le docteur en chaire en sema I'Evangile. — "The style of the advocate in court bristles with them and the doctor in the pulpit scatters them through the Gospel. " Father Andre's style of preach- ing may be judged from the following example. In one of liis passages he thus compared the four great