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Doctors of the Latin Church to the kings of the four suits of cards: St. Augustine to the King of Hearts, because of his large-heart edness; St. Ambrose to the King of Clubs (trifle, clover), on account of his flowery eloquence; St. Jerome to the King of Spades (pique, lance), because of his biting style; St. Gregory the Great to the Kng of Diamonds (carreau, in the sense of " foot-stool ") on account of his lowlin&ss of thought. However, this exaggeration of speech was but one side, and that the least important one, of Father Andre's eloquence. Tallemant des R^aux said: "He was a good member of his order and had a large fol- lowing of all sorts of people; some came to laugh, others came because he moved them." The critic Gu^ret, who had heard the facetious monk, repre- sents him, in a dialogue of the dead, as saying in his own defence against his accuser Cardinal du Perron: "Joker as you take him to be, he has not always made those laugh who heard him; he has said truths which have sent bishops back into their dioceses. He has found the art of stinging while laughing." The Regent Anne of Austria and the Prince of Cond^ en- joyed his sermons. Boulanger was several times proN-incial of his order and much occupied in other ways; consequently he was not able to attend to the printing of his works. The only one of his writings which has been published, "L'Oraison de Marie de Lorraine, abbesse de Chelles", is mediocre.

GuERET, La guerre des auteurs anciens et moderncs (Paris, 1671), 152; J.iCQUiNET, Les prMicateurs du xvii^ Steele avant Soaauet (Paris, 1885).


Boulay (BtrL^os). Ce.s.^r-Eg.vs8e dd, a French historian, b. in the beginning of the seventeenth century at Saint-EUier (department of Mayenne); d. 16 October, 167S. .\fter teaching humanities in the College of Navarre he occupied important posi- tions in the University of Paris, especially those of rector and liistorian of the university. His main work is the " Historia Universitatis Parisiensis" covering the period from the supposed foundation of the university by Charlemagne (800) to 1600. The first three volumes published in 1665 were censured by the university. To justify himself the author wrote the "Notse ad censuram ..." (Paris, 1667). The censors appointed by the king foimd nothing blameworthy in the work, and the last three volumes were published in 1673. Du Boulay's history is very important on account of the many original documents which it reproduces, but its value is lessened by the insufficient judgment and criticism of the author. Other writings of Du Boulay refer to the same topic of the university, its foundation, patrons, administration, and pri\'ileges: "De patronis quatuor nationum imiversitatis" (1662); " Carlomagnolia . . ." (1662); " De decanatu nationis Galhcanje ..." (1662); "Remarques sur la dignite, rang . . . du recteur" (1668); "Re- marques sur I'^lection des officiers de I'Universit^" (1668); "Recueil des privileges de I'Universit^ . . ." (1674); " Fondation de I'Universite par I'empereur Charlemagne ..." (1675). In addition to these Du Boulay wrote "Speculum eloquently" (1658) and "Tr^sor des antiquitfe romaines" (1651).

Ferkt, La faculte de theologie de Paris et ses docteurs les plus ciiebres. Epogue modeme ^Paris, 1904), III. 435; HuRTER, Nomenclator (2d ed.. Inn.sbruck, 1S93). II. 241; Biographie universeUe (Paris, 1811-28). V, 326; Denifle. Die Entstehu-ng der Universimten des MiUelalters bis 1J,00 (Berlin. 1885).


Boulogne, Etie\-xe-Antoixe, French bishop, b. at Avignon, 26 December, 1747; d. at Troyes, 13 March, 1825. He was the son of poor parents and obtained an education from the Christian Brothers of his native city. He exhibited talent and industry and was ordained in 1771. His oratorical gifts attracted general attention, and he soon became one of the most admired preachers in Paris. For a while the

Archbishop of Paris interdicted him from preach- ing; but was eventually induced to withdraw his opposition when a eulogy composed by the Abb6 Boulogne on the late Dauphin, the father of Louis XVI, obtained a prize. The Abbe's reputation as a preacher now grew steadily. He preached the Lenten sermons aux Quinze-Vinqts in 1786, and at the court of Versailles in 1787. In one of his sermons at court he clearly pointed out the fearful storm which was threatening society, brought on by the false philosophy and irreligion of the day. The storm advanced unchecked and broke over France sooner and with greater violence than had been foreseen, except by the keenest observers. Bou- logne refused to take the oath of the civil constitu- tion of the clergy demanded by the laws and was in consequence stripped of his titles and benefices. He also refused to leave his country in her need. He was arrested three times, but each time succeeded in recovering his liberty; condemned to deportation on another occasion for having defended Christian- ity against the attacks of Larevelliere L^peaux, he again evaded the vmjust decree. The worst of tlie revolutionary storm had scarcely blown over when he reappeared, contending in the "Annales Catho- liques", of which he had become the sole editor, with unbelievers and those of the clergy who had taken the oath of the civil constitution. In spite of in- cessant and fierce opposition he published this mag- azine under one title or another until the year 1807. He also resumed his labours as preacher with greater authority and success than ever. Napoleon, always in search of men of talent who were capable of furthering his ambitious designs, first appointed the Abb6 Boulogne his chaplain, then Bishop of Troyes. The Abb6 foresaw clearly that his position would be one of great difhculty; b\it already schooled to adversity, he did not shrink from the new trials which awaited him.

In 1811 Napoleon had the bishops of France and Northern Italy summoned to a council to be held at Paris. Bishop Boulogne preached the opening sermon in the church of Notre Dame. "Whatever vicissitudes", he said in conclusion, "the See of Peter may experience, whatever be the state and condition of his august successor, we shall firmly cling to him with bonds of filial respect and reverence; the See may be displaced, it cannot be destroyed; wher- ever that See may be, the others will take their stand around it; whithersoever that See moves, thither all Catholics will follow; for there alone is the last link of true succession; there the centre of the Church's government; there, the deposit of Apostolic tradi- tion." It is easy to see how distasteful these cour- ageous words, which produced a profound impression on the assembly, must have been to Napoleon wlio, at this verj' time, was holding Pius VII in captivity away from Rome and was using liis wonted violence and deception to extort from the assembled prelates a decision that would enable him to do without ecclesiastical investiture for the bishops of his choice. Yet this displeasure did not prevent the assembled bishops from choosing the preacher as secretary of the council and member of the committee on the reply to the imperial message. When this committee reported that there was no authority in France that eould supply, even provisionally and for a case of necessity, the absence of the pope's Bulls of episco- pal investiture. Napoleon dissolved the council and that very night Bishop Boulogne was arrested and imprisoned. He was not restored to his flock before the events of 1814. During the first Bourbon Restoration, he was chosen to preach the funeral oration of Louis XVI, and, at the second, he preached, 6 January, 1816, his well-known sermon "La France veut son Dieu, la France veut son roi". Louis XVIII made him peer of France and Leo XII