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UNITED STATES

84

UNITED STATES

are widely distributed, 24 States and Territories reporting them; but California, Colorado, Nevada, Montana, Arizona, South Dakota, and Utah produce the larger part; Nevada alone about one-half. Nevada, Utah, and Arizona yield more silver than gold.

Flora and Fauna.—The indigenous plants of the United States are estimated at about 5,000 species, California alone producing at least 2,500. The potato, the tobacco plant, and maize, now so familiar in Europe, have all been introduced from the United States or Mexico. The United States is especially rich in valuable timber trees, of which no less than 120 species, growing in sufficient quantities to be of commercial importance, attain a height of 100 feet and upward. Of these 12 species reach an altitude of 200 feet, and 5 or 6 exceed 300 feet. Hickory, magnolia, liquidamber, sassafras, and sequoia trees (to which species belong the giant trees of California), found only in a fossil state in the Old World, abound in the United States, as well as palmetto, tulip tree, cypress, cottonwood, live oak, and other oaks, and a number of trees more or less closely resembling the common species of western Europe, to which the same names have been given.

Agriculture and Live Stock.—For the aggregate acreage, production, and values of the principal agricultural crops, see Agriculture, the several State and Territorial articles, and the individual crop articles. For the production and manufacture of Cotton see article thereon. Manufactures in respect to product constitute the leading industry of the United States, and their importance is increasing more rapidly than that of agriculture. The manufacturing section is situated mainly in the North Atlantic States, spreading with diminishing importance W., following closely the distribution of the urban population. About half of the manufactured product comes from the nine States included in the North Atlantic group, and about one-third from the North Central States.

Manufactures.—The following table presents a summary of the manufacturing interests of the United States in 1899, 1904, 1909 and 1914:



Group Year  Establishments  Average
Wage
Earners
Cost of
Materials—
Amount
Value of
Products
Value
Added by
Manufacture







Food and kindred products  1899  41,247    301,868   $1,782,863,000   $2,199,204,000    $416,341,000
 1904 45,857    354,046   2,306,121,000   2,845,556,000    539,435,000
 1909 55,364    411,575   3,187,803,000   3,937,618,000    749,815,000
 1914 59,317    496,234   3,828,512,000   4,816,709,000    988,197,000
Textiles  1899 17,647  1,022,123     894,846,000   1,628,606,000    733,760,000
 1904 17,042  1,166,305   1,246,562,000   2,147,441,000    900,879,000
 1909 21,723  1,438,446   1,745,516,000   3,060,199,000  1,314,683,000
 1914 22,995  1,498,664   1,993,058,000   3,414,615,000  1,421,557,000
Iron and steel and their products   1899 14,082    745,235   1,000,949,000   1,819,478,000    818,529,000
 1904 14,431    868,634   1,190,794,000   2,199,776,000  1,008,982,000
 1909 17,292  1,026,553   1,799,942,000   3,164,472,000  1,364,530,000
 1914 17,719  1,061,058   1,762,313,000   3,223,144,000  1,460,831,000
Lumber and its manufactures  1899 34,954    671,696     480,930,000   1,007,532,000    526,602,000
 1904 32,501    734,136     517,501,000   1,219,749,000    702,248,000
 1909 48,539    911,593     717,833,000   1,588,274,000    870,441,000
 1914 42,036    833,529     762,350,000   1,599,710,000    837,360,000
Leather and its finished products   1899  5,625    248,626     396,633,000     582,048,000    185,415,000
 1904  5,318    264,459     480,221,000     724,391,000    244,170,000
 1909  5,728    309,766     669,874,000     992,713,000    322,839,000
 1914  6,758    307,060     753,135,000   1,104,595,000    351,460,000
Paper and printing  1899 26,627    298,744     214,566,000     607,907,000    393,341,000
 1904 30,803    351,640     309,012,000     859,814,000    550,802,000
 1909 34,828    415,990     451,239,000   1,179,285,000    728,046,000
 1914 37,196    452,900     580,715,000   1,456,046,000    875,331,000
Liquors and beverages  1899  5,740     55,120      93,815,000     382,898,000    289,083,000
 1904  6,379     68,338     1?9,849,000     501,254,000    361,405,000
 1909  7,347     77,827     186,128,000     674,311,000    488,183,000
 1914  7,562     88,152     246,188,000     772,080,000    525,892,000
Chemicals and allied products  1899  8,928    196,538     451,457,000     761,691,000    310,234,000
 1904  9,826    227,326     633,919,000   1,075,519,000    441,600,000
 1909 12,060    267,261     931,045,000   1,526,599,000    595,554,000
 1914 12,374    299,569   1,289,348,000   2,001,634,000    712,286,000
Stone, clay, and glass products  1899 11,524    231,716      85,137,000     270,650,000    185,513,000
 1904 10,773    285,346     123,067,000     391,148,000    268,081,000
 1909 16,168    342,827     183,792,000     531,737,000    347,945,000
 1914 14,747    334,702     238,734,000     614,162,000    375,428,000