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WASHINGTON

301

WASHINGTON

the State in 1919, was 6,292.09. The roads having the longest mileage are the Northern Pacific, the Great Northern, and the Oregon and Washington.

State Government.—The governor is elected for a term of four years. Legislative sessions are held biennially and are limited in length to 60 days each. The Legislature has 41 members in the Senate and 97 in the House. There are five Representatives in Congress.

History.—For the early history of this region, see Oregon. Washington was a part of Oregon Territory till the admission of Oregon, in 1853, when this section was separately organized as Washington Territory. There was subsequently considerable trouble with the Indians. Immigration having set actively in that direction, it was admitted into the Union as a State, Nov. 11, 1889.

WASHINGTON, a city, and the capital of the United States of America; in the District of Columbia; at the confluence of the Potomac and the Anacostia, or East Branch, rivers and on the Pennsylvania, the Baltimore and Ohio, the Southern, the Chesapeake and Ohio, and other railroads; 136 miles S. W. of Philadelphia; 226 S. W. of New York; 40 miles S. W. of Baltimore, and 185 miles W. of the Atlantic Ocean. The site of the city is an admirable one, surrounded by a circle of hills and comprising a rolling plain, with here and there irregular eminences which provide beautiful and advantageous positions for the various public buildings. The city was laid out expressly for the National Capital and on a scale indicating that it was expected to grow into a vast metropolis; area 69 square miles; pop. (1890) 230,392; (1900) 278,718; (1910) 331,069; (1920) 437,571.

The main attractions of Washington are its governmental buildings.

As the visitor emerges from the beautiful Union Station his attention is first directed to the United States Capitol, but a few blocks to the south. This massive range of buildings on Capitol Hill, including the Senate Chamber, House of Representatives, Supreme Court, Statuary Hall and the Dome covers nearly four acres. Its cost, including the land, was about $16,000,000 and was seventy-four years in process of construction. The great cast iron dome, weighing 4,500 tons and costing $1,000,000, required eight years in its construction. The bronze statue of Armed Liberty, surmounting the Dome, is 19 feet 6 inches high and cost over $24,000.

To the north, nearest Union Station, is the Senate wing of the Capitol. The Senate Chamber is located in the center of this building. The cast iron ceiling, paneled with stained glass, bears the coat of arms of each State. A gallery surrounding the hall accommodates a thousand persons. Here are located the reporters, diplomatic corps, and Senators' families, private galleries. The Senators' desks are arranged in semi-circular rows, the Democrats sitting on the right and the Republicans on the left of the Vice-President, who presides. The President's room, that of the Vice-President, and the Marble room are opposite the corridor from the Senate Chamber.

Adjoining the new Senate wing by a corridor is the old Senate Chamber, now used by the Supreme Court of the United States. To the south comes the great awe-inspiring Rotunda, 300 feet in circumference and over 280 feet in height, adorned with marvelous life-size paintings and beautiful statuary. Through another corridor, the old Hall of Representatives, now Statuary Hall, presents itself. In this Hall each State may contribute bronze or marble statues of two of her most illustrious soldiers or statesmen.

The south wing of the Capitol, adjoining Statuary Hall, is entirely occupied by the House of Representatives, the luxurious Speaker's room, and many committee rooms. Its general arrangement corresponds quite closely to the Senate Chamber, but is of larger proportions, the galleries accommodating 2,000 people.

To the southeast of the House of Congress, about one block, is the beautiful new office building for Representatives. In a corresponding position, to the northeast of the Senate, and connected with it by a subway, is an office building of like design for Senators.

The best example of exclusive American art in Washington is the Library of Congress, situated just east of the Capitol. Built primarily for Congressmen, this great storehouse of valuable books and works of art is used more freely by the people than any library in the world. Its interior is the most inspiring and marvelous combination of gold, silver, rare marbles and mosaic on such a gigantic scale to be found in America.

The Treasury building, just east of the White House, is in every way the most substantially built government building. It is 450 feet long, 250 feet wide and was completed in 1867, at a cost of $7,000,000. When built it was thought ample for all times, but even to-day it will hardly accommodate one-half of the Treasury employes. From a small be-