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Page:Collier's New Encyclopedia v. 10.djvu/45

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TUFA 29 TULIP TUFA, a name given to a light, porous, calcareous stone, sometimes having the aspect of a sandstone, at others earthy and inclosing the decomposed remains of vegetable substances; composition, a carbonate of lime; deposited by springs, rivers, and heated waters which have traversed calcareous rocks; sometimes confounded with tuff which is the term specifically applied to a fragmentary deposit of a volcanic nature of composed heterogeneous materials. TUFTS COLLEGE, a coeducational in- stitution in Medford, Mass.; founded in 1852 under the auspices of the Univer- salist Church; reported at the close of 1919: Professors and instructors, 261; students, 1,687; president, H. C. Bum- pus, Ph. D. TUILERIES (twel-rez), the residence of the French monarchs; on the right bank of the Seine, in Paris. Catharine de Medici, wife of Henry II., began the building (1564) ; Henry VI. extended it, and founded the old gallery (1600) ; and Louis XIV. enlarged it (1654), and completed that gallery. The side toward the Louvre consisted of five pavilions and four ranges of buildings; the other side had only three pavilions. During the revolution of 1830 the palace was sacked. It was restored by Louis Philippe to its former splendor, but in 1848 it was again pillaged. The Tuil- eries then became a hospital for wound- ed soldiers, a picture gallery, and the home of Louis Napoleon in 1851. On May 23, 1871, it was almost totally de- stroyed by fire (the work of the com- munists), and the remaining portions were removed in the year 1883. The right wing alone escaped destruction. TULA, an ancient and important man- ufacturing town of central Russia, capital of a province of the same name on the Upa, an affluent of the Oka, 110 miles S. of Moscow. Its churches, its arsenal, museum and government offices, and the ancient Kreml are the principal buildings. Before the World War the principal industries were in iron and steel goods, especially the firearms of the great imperial gun factory or pri- vate workshops. The Russian army was largely supplied with muskets and small arms from the works of this town. Cut- lery, locks, samovars or tea urns, mathe- matical instruments, harmoniums, and bells were also made in great perfection; the niello work of Tula was famous; and dyeing, tallow melting, and the mak- ing of soap, candles, sealing wax, leather, silk, platinum ware, and jewelry was carried on. Pop. (1913) about 140,000. Cyc. TULANE, PAUL, an American phil- anthropist; born near Princeton, N. J., in May, 1801, son of a French immigrant. He received a common school education, and in 1818 he went to New Orleans, opened a store for general merchandise, and by 1828 he had amassed a fortune of over $150,000. This business he con- tinued to carry on for nearly 40 years, engaging at the same time in cotton and real estate speculations, and in 1857 he retired with a large fortune. About this time he bought the Stockton place at Princeton, where he subsequently re- sided. For many years he gave liber- ally to the charitable institutions of Prmceton and New Orleans. In 1822 he gave to the city of New Orleans real estate, which with subsequent gifts ag- gregated $1,100,000, intending to add about $1,000,000 to the amount, but dy- ing intestate, it fell to his heirs. This gift was used to found Tulane Uni- versity (g. v.). He died near Princeton, N. J., March 27, 1887. TULANE UNIVERSITY OF LOU- ISIANA, an institution for higher edu- cation, organized in 1884, at New Or- leans, when the existing University of Louisiana was placed in the care of the administration of the Tulane Educa- tional Fund. It was established largely through gifts of Paul Tulane (q. v.). The university includes the Graduate Department, College of Arts and Scienc- es, College of Technology, and other professional schools. In 1919 there were 348 instructors and 2,908 students. President, A. B. Dinwiddle, LL. D. TULIP, a genus of bulbous Lilacese, with usually solitary campanulate flow- ers of six free segments, stamens hypogynous, filaments short, anthers fixed by the base, m.obile, linear, burst- ing inward; ovary three-cornered; stig- ma sessile with three radiating lobes; capsule erect, coriaceous. The genus is restricted to the Old World, extending from western Europe to Japan and the Himalayas; there are about 45 species, of which one is found in Great Britain. The common garden tulip {T. Gesner- iana) has been cultivated away from its native country of southern Russia and Armenia for upward of three centuries. The first description given of it is by Conrad Gesner, in a memoir published in 1561. He had seen it in bloom in April, 1559, at Augsburg, in the garden of Herwart, who had received the seeds from Byzantium — probably from Dr. Busbecq, who knew the plant as grown by the Turks. It spread rapidly and appeared in most of the botanical books of the second half of the 16th century. 3 Vol. X