Into the Netherlands it was introduced in 1571, into England in 1577 (by James Garret), and into France by Peiresc, who cultivated it in 1610 at Aix, having received it from Tournay.
The taste for the tulip has since increased and their bulbs have become an article of commerce; it was carried to a ridiculous extent, and the tulip mania reached its height in Holland from 1634 to 1637. To develop all the beauty of form and color of which the tulip is susceptible requires the greatest care in its cultivation. From seed new varieties are raised, the seedlings blossoming at four to seven years. Hundreds of varieties have been established from time to time, which range under four groups—bizarres, byblœmens, roses, and selfs. The first have a yellow ground marked with purple or scarlet; the second a white ground variegated with violet or purple of various shades; the third are marked with rose, scarlet, or crimson on a white ground; and the fourth or plain-colored tulip have a white or yellow ground without any marks. The first three of these families are again divided into feathered and flamed according as the intermingled colors are in narrow or broad stripes. Various other species of Tulipa are now represented in all good collections of bulbous plants, and the early-flowering fragrant T. suaveolens is often seen in window culture. The yellow-flowered T. sylvestris, is common in Europe, and in Siberia its bulbs are eaten. Tulipa is derived from the Turkish word tulipan, a “turban,” the rich and varied flowers resembling an inverted cap.
TULIP TREE, the Liriodendron tulipifera, one of the most magnificent forest trees of temperate North America; attaining in favorable situations a height of 100-190 feet, with a straight, clear trunk. It is the only species of the genus—which belongs to the Magnolia family—and may be recognized by its large three-lobed leaves, with the middle lobe cut square at the end, and large solitary tulip-like flowers having greenish sepals, and petals variegated with yellow and orange. The wood is highly esteemed, uniting lightness with strength and durability. It is of a pale-yellow color, fine-grained, compact, is easily worked, takes a good polish, and is therefore much used by house and bridge constructors, by cabinet-makers, coach-builders, implement-makers, etc., and by the Indians for canoes. The bark is officinal in the secondary list of the “United States Pharmacopœia” as a stimulant, tonic, and diaphoretic. The noble appearance of the tree led to its introduction over 200 years ago into Europe, where it is appreciated as a great ornament for pleasure grounds, etc. It is found from Vermont to Michigan and S. to Florida and Mississippi.
TULLE, a town in the department of Corrèze, France; on the Corrèze; 16 miles N. E. of Brive. It is an ill-built but finely situated town with a much-admired cathedral presenting a mixture of the Gothic and Classical styles. The Maison Sage and a square tower attributed to the Romans are the other buildings of note. Tulle has manufactures of arms, leather, lace (Point de Tulle), etc., and carries on a trade in iron and agricultural products. Some say it takes its name from a Roman fort called Tutela; more probably it first sprang up in the 14th century round a monastery. Pop. about 17,000.
TULLIUS, SERVIUS, the sixth legendary king of Rome, the son of a slave in the house of Tarquinius Pricus, and made king on his death by the arts of his queen, Tanaquil.
TULLOCH, JOHN, a Scotch theologian; born near Bridge of Earn, Perthshire, June 1, 1823, studied at the University of St. Andrews; and in 1844 was licensed as a preacher in the Church of Scotland. After holding for some years a charge in Dundee, he was in 1849 presented to the parish of Kettins in Forfarshire, and in 1854, on the death of Dr. Haldane, was appointed Principal of St. Mary's College, University of St Andrews. He first attracted notice as a writer in the “British Quarterly” and “North British Review.” In 1855 he obtained the second Burnett prize (£600) on the “Being and Attributes of God,” and his essay was published under the title “Theism.” The most important of his works are “Leaders of the Reformation" (1859); “English Puritanism and Its Leaders” (1861); “Beginning Life,