Page:Collier's New Encyclopedia v. 10.djvu/47

This page has been proofread, but needs to be validated.




Chapters for Young Men” (1861); “The Christ of the Gospels, and the Christ of Modern Criticism” (1864); “Rational Theology and Christian Philosophy in the Seventeenth Century” (2 vols. 1872); “Religion and Theology, a Sermon for the Times” (1875); “Facts of Religion and of Life” (Sermons) (1876); and “Pascal” (1878). He died at Torquay, Feb. 13, 1886.

TULLUS HOSTILIUS, the third mythical king of Rome, and successor of Numa. His reign was a series of wars with Alba, the Veii, and the Sabines. The legend of the famous combat between the Horatii and Curiatii forms part of the story of the Alban war.

TULSA CITY, the county-seat of Tulsa co., Okla., about 95 miles northeast of Oklahoma City, on the Atchison, Topeka and Santea Fe, the Midland Valley, the Missouri, Kansas and Texas, the St. Louis and San Francisco, and the Tulsa and Sand Springs railroads. There are a high school, a Carnegie library, and handsome parks and boulevards. It is the seat of the Henry Kendall College. Natural gas, coal, and crude oil are found in vast abundance in the vicinity, and the city has become the center of a very prosperous oil producing region. There are also manufactures of brick and tile, sewer pipes, cotton-seed oil, glass, engines, pumps, and other machinery and tools, etc. Oil refining, coal mining, and wheat milling are also carried on extensively. Pop. (1910) 18,182; (1920) 72,075.

TUMOR, in surgery, any morbid parasitic growth, generally, though not always, attended by swelling. Tumors are primarily divided into two classes, the first innocent, including non-malignant, solid, benign, or sarcomatous, and the second malignant growths. Tumors of the first type occur in comparatively few tissues, and do not alter the adjacent parts unless the tumor produces pressure and partial inflammation; they have no tendency to ulcerate or slough, and, if extirpated by a surgical operation, they do not grow again. They vary considerably in structure, being fatty, cellular, fibrous, fibroid or tendonous, encysted, vascular, cartilaginous, osseous, or fibro-cartilaginous. Fatty and cartilaginous tumors often reach a size so large that they weigh many pounds. They should be excised while they are small. A tumor of the second type, on the contrary, may arise in almost any part of the body, though some parts are more liable than others to attacks. They tend to propagate their morbid action to the adjacent parts, or, by means of the blood, even to spots remote from their formative seat; they ulcerate or slough, and, when extirpated by surgical operation, grow again, either at the original or some other place. The cancer and tubercle are leading types of malignant tumors. A third type of tumor, the semi-malignant, is intermediate between the first two, and includes some forms of sarcomic and of melanotic tumor, the painful subcutaneous tumor or tubercle, nævi, polypi, etc. Melanosis is commoner in horses than in the human subject, and chiefly in white or gray horses. Various tumors are inter-thoracic, affecting the heart, the lungs, etc. There are also tumors of the brain, of the liver, the rectum, etc.; and in women the uterus and the vagina are specially liable to be affected with tumor.

TUMULTY, JOSEPH PATRICK, an American public official, born in Jersey City, N. J., May 5, 1879; educated at St. Peter's College, Jersey City, and after studying law was admitted to the New Jersey bar, in 1902. From 1907 to 1910 he was a member of the New Jersey Assembly. In 1910 he was appointed private secretary to Woodrow Wilson, then governor of New Jersey. In 1912 he was appointed secretary of the Supreme Court of New Jersey. After Governor Wilson's election to the Presidency of the United States he was appointed secretary to the President in 1913, serving throughout both terms of President Wilson.

TUNBRIDGE, or TONBRIDGE, a market-town of Kent, England; 29½ miles S. E. of London; on the Medway, which here divides into six streams, one of them called the Tun. A castle, originally Norman, but largely rebuilt in 1280-1300, and held successively by Fitz-Gilberts, De Clares, Audleys, and Staffords, retains a fine Early Decorated gatehouse. The manufacture of toys, boxes, and other articles in “Tunbridge ware" (a kind of wood mosaic in veneer) is a specialty. Pop. about 15,000.

TUNGSTEN, a rare metallic element, found in wolfram, which is a tungstate of iron and manganese, and likewise found in scheelite, which is a tungstate of lime. The metal (Swedish, tung-sten, "heavy stone”) is obtained either as a dark-gray powder or in heavy iron-gray bars, which are very hard and difficult of fusion, and have a sp. gr. of 19.1. Aqua regia and nitric acid convert it into tungstic acid. When 10 parts of this metal are alloyed with 90 of steel a mass of extraordinary hardness is obtained. Tungsten forms two compounds with oxygen—viz., a binoxide, WO2, which is