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Geological Society, and to the Royal Institution, of Cornwall, on the geology of the Lizard district. To the Rev. H. A. Simcoe's periodical of ‘Light from the West’ he furnished a series of articles setting forth the reflections of the ‘Christian Naturalist,’ which was published in 1838 in a volume bearing that title. A compilation from his pen on the ‘Lives of Men of Great Æras’ was issued in 1851. He published many visitation and

[Gent. Mag. September 1865, p. 391, November 1865, p. 651; Life prefixed to Posthumous Gleanings; Courtney and Boase's Bibl. Cornub. i. 50, ii. 651, iii. 1076, 1100.]

W. P. C.

BUDGELL, EUSTACE (1686–1737), miscellaneous writer, was born 19 Aug. 1686, and baptised 2 Sept. (information from W. Pengelly, F.R.S.) He was the son of Gilbert Budgell, D.D., of St. Thomas, Exeter, by his first wife Mary, only daughter of Bishop Gulston of Bristol, whose sister was wife of Lancelot, and mother of Joseph Addison. He matriculated 31 March 1705 at Trinity College, Oxford (Register of Trinity College, 175). He afterwards entered the Inner Temple, and was called to the bar; but an intimacy with his cousin Addison diverted him from his profession. Addison, while secretary to Wharton, the lord-lieutenant of Ireland, made Budgell a clerk in his office. He shared Addison's lodgings during the last years of Queen Anne, and took a considerable part in the ‘Spectator.’ Thirty-seven papers are ascribed to him (N. Drake's Essays, iii. 18). They are palpable imitations of Addison's manner. One of them (No. 116) is an account of Sir Roger de Coverley in the hunting-field. Johnson mentions a report that Addison had ‘mended them so much that they were almost his own’ (Boswell, 26 April 1776). It was also said that Addison was the real author of an epilogue to Ambrose Philips's ‘Distressed Mother,’ the ‘most successful ever spoken in an English theatre;’ and had Budgell's name substituted for his own at the last moment, to strengthen his young cousin's claims to a place (Johnson, Life of Philips). In 1714 Budgell published a translation of ‘Theophrastus,’ duly praised by Addison in the ‘Lover’ (No. 39). In 1711 the death of Budgell's father had put him in possession of an estate of 950l. a year, encumbered with some debt. On the accession of George I Addison became secretary to the lord-lieutenant, and made Budgell under-secretary. Budgell was also chief secretary to the lords justices, deputy clerk of the council, and M.P. for Mullingar (1715–27) in the Irish Parliament. He takes credit for energetic and disinterested conduct during the strain put upon his office by the despatch of troops to Scotland in 1715 (Letter to Lord ——). Upon leaving Ireland in 1717 Addison procured for Budgell the place of accountant-general, worth 400l. a year. He held this appointment from 10 Aug. 1717 to 11 Dec. 1718.

In August 1717 the Duke of Bolton succeeded Sunderland as lord-lieutenant. His secretary, E. Webster, quarrelled with Budgell, who was ultimately deprived of his places. From a pamphlet which he published on returning to England (Letter to the Lord —— from Eustace Budgell, Accountant-General of Ireland and late Secretary to the Lords Justices) and ‘Remarks’ upon his letter (written or inspired by Webster) it seems that the dispute turned mainly upon a clerkship in the office which Budgell desired to keep for his brother, while Webster appointed a Mr. Maddockes. Addison, it is said, disapproved of Budgell's publication, and it is significant that in 1719 Budgell is said to have written a pamphlet against the peerage bill, thus offending Sunderland, Addison's patron, and taking the side of Steele in his famous quarrel with Addison.

Budgell travelled abroad, and returned to lose 20,000l., as he says (Liberty and Property, i. 137), in the South Sea. The Duke of Portland had lost a large estate in the same affair, and helped Budgell to circulate various pamphlets on the occasion, especially a paper distributed to members of parliament, ‘Letter to a Friend in the Country,’ and ‘A Letter to Mr. Law on his Arrival in England,’ which went through seven editions. The Duke of Portland, on being appointed governor of Jamaica, proposed to take Budgell as his secretary, but received a message from a secretary of state, telling him that he might take any man in England except Budgell (Liberty and Property, i. 137–42). Budgell now fell into difficulties, which seem to have affected his brain. He spent, it is said, 5,000l. of his own, and afterwards 1,000l. given to him by the Duchess of Marlborough, in attempts to get into parliament. He became involved in numerous and vexatious lawsuits. Some of them concerned an estate in Essex, a moiety of which he had bought before the South Sea losses from a clergyman named William Piers, with whom he had intricate disputes. Budgell believed Piers to be the instrument of some great man, presumably Walpole, who had dark designs against him. He got into the Fleet, though in December 1732 he obtained 5l. damages for illegal arrest by a bailiff, Budgell declaring that he was privileged as secretary to Lord Orrery (Gent. Mag. ii. 1123). Budgell further declares that he was