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guage of the Hand’ had acquired for him the appellation of ‘the Chirosopher,’ should have suggested nothing in regard to a method of speaking on the fingers, especially as he had himself mentioned a case in which a manual alphabet had been actually used.

His works are:

  1. ‘Chirologia; or the Natvrall Langvage of the Hand. Composed of the Speaking Motions and Discoursing Gestures thereof. Whereunto is added Chironomia: Or the Art of Manvall Rhetoricke. Consisting of the Naturall Expressions, digested by Art in the Hand, as the chiefest Instrument of Eloquence, by Historicall Manifesto's, exemplified out of the Authentique Registers of Common Life, and Civill Conversation. With Types, or Chirograms: A long-wish'd for illustration of this Argument.’ London, 1644, 8vo. Dedicated to Edward Goldsmith of Gray's Inn.
  2. ‘Philocophus; or the Deafe and Dumbe Man's Friend. Exhibiting the Philosophicall verity of that subtile Art, which may inable one with an observant Eie, to Heare what any man speaks by the moving of his lips. Upon the same Ground, with the advantage of an Historicall Exemplification, apparently proving, That a Man borne Deafe and Dumbe, may be taught to Heare the sound of words with his Eie, & thence learne to speake with his Tongue. By I. B., sirnamed the Chirosopher,’ London, 1648, 12mo. Dedicated to Sir Edward Gostwicke, bart., of Willington, Bedfordshire, Mr. William Gostwicke, his youngest brother, ‘and all other intelligent and ingenious gentlemen, who as yet can neither heare nor speake.’
  3. ‘Pathomyotomia, or a Dissection of the significative Muscles of the Affections of the Minde. Being an Essay to a new Method of observing the most important movings of the Muscles of the Head, as they are the neerest and Immediate Organs of the Voluntarie or Impetuous motions of the Mind. With the Proposall of a new Nomenclature of the Muscles. By J. B., sirnamed the Chirosopher,’ London, 1649, 12mo. Dedicated to his father, Thomas Bulwer.
  4. ‘Anthropometamorphosis: Man Transform'd; or the Artificial Changeling. Historically presented, in the mad and cruel Gallantry, foolish Bravery, ridiculous Beauty, filthy Finenesse, and loathsome Lovelinesse of most Nations, fashioning & altering their Bodies from the Mould intended by Nature. With a Vindication of the Regular Beauty and Honesty of Nature. And an Appendix of the Pedigree of the English Gallant,’ London, 1650, 12mo. Dedicated to Thomas Diconson, esq. The second edition, London, 1653, 4to, is illustrated with many woodcuts, and prefixed to it there is a fine portrait of the author engraved by W. Faithorne. The work was reissued in 1654 under the title of ‘A View of the People of the whole World.’
  5. ‘Vultispex Criticus, seu Phisiognomia Medici, continens Decretalia Secreta et Oracula Medicinæ Diagnosticæ, Prognosticæ, et Semeioticæ, Criticæque Magnalia,’ Sloane MS. 805
  6. ‘Glossiatrus: Tractatus de removendis Loquelæ impedimentis.’
  7. ‘Otiatrus: Tractatus de removendis Auditionis impedimentis.’ The last three works and other unpublished treatises by him are mentioned at the end of the second edition of ‘Anthropometamorphosis,’ 1653.

[Retrospective Review, 2nd ser. ii. 205; Oldys's British Librarian, 364; Granger's Biog. Hist. of England (1824), iv. 32; Edinb. Review, lxi. 413, 417; Penny Cycl. vi. 19; Evans's Cat. of Engraved Portraits, i. 47; Beloe's Anecdotes, vi. 25; Lowndes's Bibl. Man. (Bohn), 311; Wadd's Nugæ Chirurgicæ, 30, 188; Ayscough's Cat. of MSS., 526.]

T. C.

BULWER, ROSINA BOYLE, Lady Lytton (1804–1882). [See Lytton.]

BULWER, WILLIAM HENRY LYTTON EARLE, Baron Dalling and Bulwer (1801–1872), diplomatist, better known as Sir Henry Bulwer, although his baptismal certificate gives the above names, was born at 31 Baker Street, Portman Square, London, on 13 Feb. 1801. He was the second of the three sons of General William Earle Bulwer of Wood Dalling, Heydon Hall, Norfolk, by his wife, Elizabeth Barbara Lytton, only child of Richard Warburton Lytton of Knebworth Park, Hertfordshire. At the time of Bulwer's birth his father was colonel of the 106th regiment. General Bulwer died 7 July 1807, in his fifty-first year, and his young widow undertook the education of her three sons. She was a woman of rare accomplishments; her father had been a favourite pupil of Dr. Parr, who used to boast that his pupil was inferior only to himself and perhaps Porson in scholarship, while he was also an accomplished oriental linguist. Henry Bulwer had an ample fortune secured from his maternal grandmother, Elizabeth, daughter of Paul Joddrell of Lewknor in Oxfordshire.

Bulwer's first schooling was under Dr. Curtis at Sunbury in Middlesex. Thence he went to Harrow, where his tutor was the Rev. Mark Drury. In 1819 he went up to Cambridge, where he was entered at Trinity, but shortly afterwards migrated to Downing College. Bulwer never competed for honours. His most intimate associate was Alexander (afterwards Chief Justice) Cockburn [q. v.] In 1822 he published a small