Open main menu

Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 21.djvu/75

This page has been proofread, but needs to be validated.
 

Army,’ reprinted from ‘Mission Life,’ 1869. 21. ‘Mission Shillings,’ reprinted from ‘Mission Life,’ 1869. 22. ‘Waifs and Strays of Natural History,’ 1871. 23. ‘Aunt Judy's Song Book for Children.’ 24. ‘Select Parables from Nature, for Use in Schools,’ 1872. 25. ‘A Book of Emblems, with Interpretations thereof,’ 1872. 26. ‘The Mother's Book of Poetry,’ 1872. 27. ‘The Book of Sun Dials,’ 1872.

[Parables from Nature, with a Memoir of the Author (1885), pp. ix–xxi; A. Gatty's A Life at One Living (1884), pp. 164–7; Illustrated London News, 18 Oct. 1873, pp. 369, 370, with portrait; Aunt Judy's Mag. Christmas volume (1874), pp. 3–7; Athenæum, 11 Oct. 1873, pp. 464–5; Sheffield Daily Telegraph, 6 Oct. 1873, p. 4, and 10 Oct. p. 3; Boase's Collectanea Cornubiensia, p. 269.]

G. C. B.

GAUDEN, JOHN (1605–1662), bishop of Worcester, was born in 1605 at Mayland in Essex, of which parish his father was vicar. He was educated at Bury St. Edmunds school, and about 1618–19 entered St. John's College, Cambridge, where he took the degrees of B.A. about 1622–3, and M.A. in 1625–6. In 1630 he went to Oxford as tutor to two sons of Sir William Russell, bart., of Chippenham in Cambridgeshire, whose daughter Elizabeth, widow of Edward Lewknor, esq., of Denham in Suffolk, he had lately married. Upon their departure he seems to have remained at Oxford as tutor to other pupils of rank. He became a commoner of Wadham College in September 1630, took his B.D. on 22 July 1635, and proceeded D.D. on 8 July 1641. In March 1640 he became vicar of Chippenham, on the presentation of his pupil, now Sir Francis Russell. He was also chaplain to Robert Rich, earl of Warwick. Wood's statement that he was rector of Brightwell, Berkshire, is disproved by an examination of the registers. He shared Warwick's parliamentary sympathies, and was appointed to preach before the House of Commons on 29 Nov. 1640. His sermon (printed in 1641) brought him a large silver tankard, inscribed ‘Donum honorarium populi Anglicani in parliamento congregati, Johanni Gauden.’ In 1641 he was nominated by the parliament, through Warwick's influence, to the deanery of Bocking in Essex. He also procured a collation from Archbishop Laud, the legitimate patron, then in the Tower. Baker says he was admitted on 1 April 1642 as dean of Bocking in Essex, ‘atque rector ibidem, à Gulielmo Archiepiscopo Cantuar. non nolente, nec admodum volente, utpote non planè libero et in arce Londinensi concluso.’ Gauden was chosen one of the assembly of divines in 1643, according to his own account. From that assembly he says he was shuffled out by a secret committee and an unknown sleight of hand, because he was for regulating, not rooting out episcopacy (see his Ecclesiæ Anglicanæ Suspiria, p. 377, and his Anti Baal-Berith, p. 89). We are also assured that he took the ‘solemn league and covenant,’ though he seems to deny it, and published in 1643 ‘Certain Scruples and Doubts of Conscience about taking the Solemn League and Covenant.’ He ultimately gave up the use of the Common Prayer, though it was continued in his church longer than in any in the neighbourhood.

Gauden began to have misgivings as the struggle developed. He published in 1648–9 a ‘Religious and Loyal Protestation of John Gauden, D.D., against the present Purposes and Proceedings of the Army and others about the trying and destroying our Sovereign Lord the King; sent to a Colonell to bee presented to the Lord Fairfax.’ Shortly after the king's death, if we may believe his own statement, he wrote ‘Cromwell's Bloody Slaughter House; or his damnable Designs in contriving the Murther of his Sacred Majesty King Charles I discovered.’ This, however, was not printed till 1660. In 1662 it was reprinted with additions as ‘Στρατοστηλιτευτικόν. A Just Invective against those of the Army and their Abettors, who murdered King Charles I on the 30th Jan. 1648. Written February 1648 by Dr. Gauden.’ While retaining his preferments, he published in 1653 ‘Hieraspistes: a Defence by way of Apology for the Ministry and Ministers of the Church of England;’ and again in the same year, ‘The Case of Ministers' Maintenance by Tithes (as in England) plainly discussed in Conscience and Prudence.’ On the passing of the Civil Marriage Act he published ‘Ἱεροτελεστία γαμική. Christ at the Wedding: the pristine sanctity and solemnity of Christian Marriages as they were celebrated by the Church of England,’ London, 4to, 1654. In 1658 he published ‘Funerals made Cordials;’ a funeral sermon upon Robert Rich, heir-apparent to the earldom of Warwick. In 1659 he printed ‘A petitionary Remonstrance presented to O. P. 4 Feb. 1655 by John Gauden, D.D., &c., in behalf of many thousands his distressed brethren, ministers of the Gospel, and other good scholars, deprived of all publique employment by his Declaration, 1 Jan.’ Gauden had thus maintained an ambiguous position, retaining his preferments, and conforming to presbyterianism, though publishing books on behalf of the church of England. In 1656 he was endeavouring to promote an agreement between presbyterians and episcopalians on the basis of Archbishop Ussher's model (Thurloe, v.