598). In 1659 he published a folio entitled ‘Ἱερὰ Δάκρυα. Ecclesiæ Anglicanæ Suspiria, or the Tears, Sighs, Complaints, and Prayers of the Church of England.’ Gauden preached the funeral sermon of Bishop Ralph Brownrig [q. v.], who died on 7 Dec. 1659, and published it with amplifications as a memorial. Gauden succeeded Brownrig in the preachership at the Temple. Upon the restoration of Charles II he was made chaplain to the king, and in November 1660 appointed to the bishopric of Exeter vacant by Brownrig's death. The revenues of the see were, according to Gauden, only about 500l. a year, but from the long intermission in renewing the leases of estates, the fines for renewal upon Gauden's appointment are said to have amounted to 20,000l. Before his promotion to Exeter he had published his ‘Anti-sacrilegus; or a Defensative against the plausible pest or guilded poyson of that namelesse paper (supposed to be the plot of Dr. C. Burges and his partners) which tempts the King's Majestie by the offer of five hundred thousand pounds to make good to the purchasers of bishops' lands, &c., their illegal bargain for ninety-nine years,’ 4to, 1660. Also ‘Ἀνάλυσις. The loosing of St. Peter's bands; setting forth the true sense and solution of the Covenant in point of Conscience, so far as it relates to Episcopacy,’ 4to, 1660. And again, ‘Anti Baal-Berith, or the Binding of the Covenant and the Covenanters to their good behaviour by a Vindication of Dr. Gauden's Analysis,’ 4to, 1661. In 1661 he published ‘A pillar of gratitude humbly dedicated to the glory of God, the honour of his Majesty, the renown of this present Parliament, upon their restoring the Church of England to the primitive government of Episcopacy.’ In 1662 he published a very faulty edition of Hooker's works, and prefixed a life of the author, which is unfavourably criticised by Isaac Walton. He now petitioned for advancement to the see of Winchester. On 25 July 1663 Pepys visited Dennis Gauden, the bishop's brother, who had nearly finished a fine house at Clapham. The house, as Dennis told Pepys, had been built for his brother ‘when he should come to be bishop of Winchester, which he was promised,’ as there was no house belonging to the see. Winchester, however, was given to Morley, bishop of Worcester, and Gauden was forced to be content with a translation to Worcester, to which he was elected on 23 May 1662, and confirmed on 10 June. It is said that vexation at having missed the aim of his ambition brought on a violent attack of the stone and strangury, of which he died on 20 Sept. following. He was buried in Worcester Cathedral, where there is a monument with his bust. His widow petitioned the king for the half-year's profits of Worcester, on the plea of the expenses of removal, but her petition was rejected on account of the large fines received at Exeter. Till his elevation Gauden presumably lived at Bocking to which parish he gave 400l. for the schools.
Besides other writings of an ephemeral character, the ‘Εἰκὼν Βασιλική; the Pourtraicture of His Sacred Majestie in His Solitudes and Sufferings,’ has been on very strong grounds attributed to Gauden. A copy of this book is said to have been bought the day after the king's execution (Toland, Life, 1722, p. 16), i.e. 31 Jan. 1649. It certainly appeared almost simultaneously with that event, and was put forth as the genuine work of Charles I. It soon went through forty-seven editions, was translated into Latin by John Earle (1601?–1665) [q. v.] in 1649, and was attacked in Milton's ‘Iconoclastes’ (1649). Some doubts as to whether the king was author are insinuated by Milton. They are noticed in the ‘Princely Pelican,’ a royalist pamphlet published six months later, and stated more explicitly in the Εἰκὼν ἀληθινή (probably August 1649), to which a reply was made in the Εἰκὼν ἡ πιστή. A sharp controversy upon the question broke out after the revolution of 1688.
Gauden, when appointed to Exeter, complained to Clarendon of the poverty of the see, and asked for a higher reward on the ground of some secret service. In a letter received 21 Jan. 1660–1 he explained that this was the sole ‘invention’ of the ‘Eicon.’ Clarendon said in his reply: ‘The particular which you often renewed I do confesse was imparted to me under secrecy, and of which I did not take myself to be at liberty to take notice, and truly when it ceases to be a secret I know nobody will be glad of it except Mr. Milton. I have very often wished I had never been trusted with it’ (Clarendon State Papers, iii. supplement, pp. xxvi, xxxii). When a vacancy was expected at Winchester, Gauden again pressed his claims upon Clarendon, upon the Duke of York, and Charles II, and afterwards upon Clarendon's enemy, George Digby, second earl of Bristol [q. v.] The claim was obviously admitted at the time by the persons concerned, although Clarendon in a conversation with his son in the last year of his life (1674) used language apparently denying Gauden's authorship (Wagstaffe, Vindication and Defence of Vindication). Burnet states that in 1674 the Duke of York told him that Gauden was the author. A memorandum written by Arthur Annesley, first earl of Anglesey [q. v.], in his copy of the book, to the effect that Charles II and the Duke