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graver. He afterwards engraved 'The Polish Exiles,' after Sir William Allan, P.R.S.A., and 'The Covenanters' Communion,' and 'A Schule Skailin,' after Sir George Harvey, P.R.S.A., and at the time of his death was engaged upon 'The First Letter from the Emigrants,' after Thomas Faed, R. A., for the Association for the Promotion of the Fine Arts in Scotland. He died at 8 Frederick Street, Edinburgh, on 20 Dec. 1850, and was buried in the Greyfriars churchyard.

William Howison the engraver must be distinguished from William Howison (fl. 1823) poet and philosopher, who also lived in Edinburgh, was a friend of Sir Walter Scott (Lockhart, Life of Sir W. Scott, pp. 230, 505-6), and was author of:

  1. 'Polydore' (a ballad by which he introduced himself to Scott, who inserted it in the `Edinburgh Annual Review' for 1810).
  2. 'Fragments and Fictions' (published under the assumed name of M. de Pendemots).
  3. 'An Essay on the Sentiments of Attraction, Adaptation, and Vanity.'
  4. 'A Key to the Mythology of the Ancients.'
  5. 'Europe's Likeness to the Human Spirit,' Edinburgh, 1821, 12mo.
  6. 'A Grammar of Infinite Forms, or the Mathematical Elements of Ancient Philosophy and Mythology,' Edinburgh, 1823, 12mo.
  7. 'The Conquest of the Twelve Tribes.'

[Scotsman, 28 Dec. 1850; Edinburgh Evening Courant, 28 Dec. 1850; Art Journal, 1851, p. 44, reprinted in Gent. Mag. 1851, i. 321; Anderson's Scottish Nation, ii. 500; Bryan's Dict. of Painters and Engravers, ed. Graves, 1886-9, i. 684; Notes and Queries, 6th ser. v. 253.]

R. E. G.

HOWITT, MARY (1799–1888), miscellaneous writer, was born on 12 March 1799 at Coleford, Gloucestershire, the temporary residence of her parents, while her father, Samuel Botham (d.1823), a prosperous quaker of Uttoxeter, Staffordshire, was looking after some mining property. Her mother was Anne Wood, a descendant of Andrew Wood the patentee, attacked by Swift in the `Drapier letters.' Mary Botham was educated at home, soon read widely for herself in many branches, and commenced writing verses at a very early age. On 16 April 1821 she married at Uttoxeter William Howitt [q.v.], and began a career of joint authorship with her husband. Their literary productions at first consisted chiefly of poetical and other contributions to annuals and periodicals, of which a selection was published in 1827 under the title of `The Desolation of Eyam and other Poems.' The life of Mary Howitt was completely bound up with that of her husband; she was separated only from him during the period of his Australian journey (1851-4). On removing to Esher in 1837 she commenced writing her well-known tales for children, a long series of books which met with signal success. While residing at Heidelberg in 1840 her attention was directed to Scandinavian literature, and in company with her friend Madame Schoultz she set herself to learn Swedish and Danish. She afterwards translated Fredrika Bremer's novels (1842-1863, 18 vols.), works which she was the first to make known to English readers. She also translated many of Hans Andersen's tales, such as `Only a Fiddler,' 1845, `The Improvisatore,' 1845, 1847, `Wonderful Stories for Children,' 1846, `The True Story of every Life,' 1847. Among her original works were `The Heir of West Waylan,' 1847. She edited for three years the `Drawing-room Scrap Book,' writing for it among other articles `Biographical Sketches of the Queens of England.' She edited the 'Pictorial Calendar of the Seasons,' translated Ennemoser's 'History of Magic,' and took the chief share in `The Literature and Romance of Northern Europe,' 1852. She also produced a `Popular History of the United States' (2 vols. 1859), and a three-volume novel called `The Cost of Caergwyn' (1864). Her name was attached as author, translator, or editor to upwards of 110 works. From the Literary Academy of Stockholm she received a silver medal. On 21 April 1879 she was awarded a civil list pension of 100l. a year. In the decline of her life she joined the church of Rome, and was one of the English deputation who were received by the pope on 10 Jan. 1888. Her interesting `Reminiscences of my Later Life' were printed in `Good Words' in 1886. The death of her husband in 1879, and of her eldest child, Mrs. A. A. Watts, in 1884, caused her intense grief. The `Times' says, speaking of the Howitts: `Their friends used jokingly to call them William and Mary, and to maintain that they had been crowned together like their royal prototypes. Nothing that either of them wrote will live, but they were so industrious, so disinterested, so amiable, so devoted to the work of spreading good and innocent literature, that their names ought not to disappear unmourned.' Mary Howitt, having removed from her usual residence at Meran in the Tyrol to spend the winter in Rome, died there of bronchitis on 30 Jan. 1888. A portrait is prefixed to Margaret Hewitt's `Life of Mary Howitt,' 1889.

Among the works written, like those already mentioned, independently of her husband, were:

  1. `Sketches of Natural History,' 1834.
  2. `Wood Leighton, or a Year in the Country,' 1836.
  3. `Birds and Flowers