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    and other Country Things,' 1838.
    1. 'Hymns and Fireside Verses,' 1839.
    2. 'Hope on, Hope ever, a Tale,' 1840.
    3. 'Strive and Thrive,' 1840.
    4. 'Sowing and Reaping, or What will come of it,' 1841.
    5. 'Work and Wages, or Life in Service,' 1842.
    6. 'Which is the Wiser? or People Abroad,' 1842.
    7. 'Little Coin, Much Care,' 1842.
    8. 'No Sense like Common Sense,' 1843.
    9. 'Love and Money,' 1843.
    10. 'My Uncle the Clockmaker,' 1844.
    11. 'The Two Apprentices,' 1844.
    12. 'My own Story, or the Autobiography of a Child,' 1845.
    13. 'Fireside Verses,' 1845.
    14. 'Ballads and other Poems,' 1847.
    15. 'The Children's Year,' 1847.
    16. 'The Childhood of Mary Leeson,' 1848.
    17. 'Our Cousins in Ohio,' 1849.
    18. 'The Heir of Wast-Waylan,' 1851.
    19. 'The Dial of Love,' 1853.
    20. 'Birds and Flowers and other Country Things,' 1855.
    21. 'The Picture Book for the Young,' 1855.
    22. 'M. Howitt's Illustrated Library for the Young,' 1856; two series.
    23. 'Lillieslea, or Lost and Found,' 1861.
    24. 'Little Arthur's Letters to his Sister Mary,' 1861.
    25. 'The Poet's Children,' 1863.
    26. 'The Story of Little Cristal,' 1863.
    27. 'Mr. Rudd's Grandchildren,' 1864.
    28. 'Tales in Prose for Young People,' 1864.
    29. 'M. Howitt's Sketches of Natural History, 1864.
    30. 'Tales in Verse for Young People,' 1865.
    31. 'Our Four-footed Friends,' 1867.
    32. 'John Oriel's Start in Life,' 1868.
    33. 'Pictures from Nature,' 1869.
    34. 'Vignettes of American History,' 1869.
    35. 'A Pleasant Life,' 1871.
    36. 'Birds and their Nests,' 1872.
    37. 'Natural History Stories,' 1875.
    38. ' Tales for all Seasons,' 1881. 42.
    39. 'Tales of English Life, including Middleton and the Middletons,' 1881.

[Margaret Howitt's Life of Mary Howitt, 1889, with two portraits; Good Words, 1886, pp. 52, 172, 330, 394, 592; Hale's Woman's Record, 1855, pp. 699-702, with portrait; Athenæum, 4 Feb. 1888, p. 148, and 11 Feb. p. 181; Times, 3 Feb. 1888, p. 7, and 7 Feb. p. 8; Graphic, 18 Feb. 1888, p. 168, with portrait; Alaric Watts's Life, 1884,ii. 1-15; Godey's Lady's Book, 1852, xlv. 320-2; information from Mrs. John Macdonell; and the authorities mentioned under William Howitt.]

G. C. B.

HOWITT, RICHARD (1799–1869), poet, born at Heanor in Derbyshire in 1799, was the son of Thomas Howitt and Phoebe Tantum. William Howitt [q. v.] was his brother. He spent his earlier years as a druggist in Nottingham, at first in partnership with his brother William, but finally on his own account. He was an ardent lover of literature, and published in 1830 a volume of poems entitled 'Antediluvian Sketches.' This was highly praised by competent judges, and was followed in 1840 by the 'Gipsy King' and other poems. Many of Howitt's poems appeared first in `Tait's Magazine' and W. Dearden's ' Miscellany.' Towards the end of 1839 Richard, in company with his brother, Dr. Godfrey Howitt, emigrated to Australia, but returned in 1844, and published his experiences in `Impressions of Australia Felix during Four Years' Residence in that Colony, Notes of a Voyage round the World, Australian Poems,' &c., 1845. This miscellany of prose and verse was described by Leigh Hunt as 'full of genuine pictures of nature, animate and inanimate.' After a stay in Nottingham Howitt retired to Edingley, Nottinghamshire, and published in 1868 a last volume of verse, ' Wasp's Honey, or Poetic Gold and Gems of Poetic Thought.' He died at Edingley on 5 Feb. 1869, and was buried in the Friends' cemetery at Mansfield. Christopher North says of him, in the 'Noctes Ambrosianæ,' `Richard has true poetic feeling, and no small poetic power.'

[The Reliquary, x. and xi.; Mary Howitt: an Autobiography, edited by her daughter, Margaret Howitt, 1889, i. 117, 181, 222, ii. 169; Nottingham Daily Express, February 1869; Nottingham Daily Guardian, February 1869; Smith's Friends' Books.]

R. B.

HOWITT, SAMUEL (1765?–1822), painter and etcher, a member of an old Nottinghamshire quaker family, was born about 1765. In early life he was in an independent position, and, residing at Chigwell, Epping Forest, devoted himself to field sports. Financial difficulties compelled him to turn to art as a profession. Coming to London, he was for a time a drawing master, and attended Dr. Goodenough's academy at Ealing. In 1783 he exhibited with the Society of British Artists three 'stained drawings' of hunting subjects, and in 1785 first appeared at the Royal Academy, contributing two landscapes; in 1793 he sent 'Jaques and the Deer' and 'A Fox Hunt.' He worked both in oils and water-colours, confining himself to sporting subjects and illustrations of natural history, which are carefully drawn, very spirited and truthful. Howitt was closely associated in his art with Rowlandson, whose sister he married, and his works frequently pass for those of his brother-in-law; but, unlike Rowlandson, he was a practical sportsman, and his incidents are more accurately delineated. He was a clever and industrious etcher, and published a great number of plates similar in character to his drawings, and delicately executed with a fine needle. He also produced a number of caricatures in the manner