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House of Commons in February 1642-3 (Journals of the House of Commons, ii. 973). He gave evidence against Laud as to his policy when chancellor of Dublin University (cf. Laud, Works, iv. 297; Prynne, Canterburies Doome, &c., pp. 178, 359). In 1648, having been for some time employed by the committee of parliament for the reformation of the university of Oxford, he was appointed master of University College and regius professor of divinity. A canonry of Christ Church,which had been appropriated for the support of the professorship, was assigned to another before Hoyle's appointment, and, since the income of the master of University College was very small, Hoyle complained with reason of straitened means. He died on 6 Dec. 1654, and was buried in the old chapel of University College.

Hoyle's learning was esteemed by Archbishop Ussher, in whose vindication he wrote 'A Rejoynder to Master Malone's Reply concerning Reall Presence,' Dublin, 1641, 4to. A sermon preached by J. H., printed in 1645 with the title 'Jehojades Justice against Mattan, Baal's Priest,' &c., is attributed to Hoyle.

[Wood's Athenæ Oxon. (Bliss), iii. 382, 507, 1146, iv. 398; Brook's Puritans, iii. 226; Neal's Hist. of the Puritans, iii. 393; Register of the Visitors of the Univ. of Oxford, 1647-58, ed. Professor Burrows (Camden Soc.)]

R. B.

HOYLE, WILLIAM (1831–1886), temperance reformer, fourth child of poor parents, was born in the valley of Rossendale, Lancashire, in 1831. By constant and severe labour he succeeded in 1851 in starting a business as a cotton-spinner in partnership with his father at Brooksbottom, near Bury, Lancashire. In 1859 he married, and removed to Tottington, where a large mill was built. He died on 26 Feb. 1886.

On reaching an independent position Hoyle threw himself with great energy into the temperance movement. In 1869 he published a pamphlet by 'A Cotton Manufacturer,' entitled 'An Inquiry into the long-continued Depression in the Cotton Trade,' which, revised and enlarged into a book, was published in 1871 as 'Our National Resources, and how they are wasted,' 8vo. This volume made Hoyle at once a recognised authority on the statistics of the drink question. He followed it up by many short publications, and by an annual letter to the 'Times' on the 'drink bill' of successive years. In 1876 appeared 'Crime in England and Wales in the Nineteenth Century.' Hoyle was an ardent supporter of the policy and proceedings of the United Kingdom Alliance, and interested himself also in the introduction into England of Good Templarism. In connection with these organisations he wrote many pamphlets and letters. His 'Hymns and Songs for Temperance Societies and Bands of Hope' have had a large circulation.

[Manchester Guardian, 1 March 1886, p. 8; Ch. of Engl. Temperance Chron. 6 March 1886; Temperance Record, 4 March 1886.]

R. B.

HUBBARD, JOHN GELLIBRAND, first Lord Addington (1805–1889), born 21 March 1805, was eldest son of John Hubbard (d. 1847), Russia merchant, of Stratford Grove, Essex, by Marian (d. 1851), daughter of John Morgan of Bramfield Place, Hertfordshire. He was educated privately, and, his health being delicate, he was sent in 1816 to a school at Bordeaux, where he remained for four years. In 1821 he entered his father's counting-house, and was soon connected with many important commercial undertakings. He was in 1838 elected a director of the Bank of England. From 1853 until his death he was chairman of the public works loan commission. Hubbard entered the House of Commons in 1859 in the conservative interest, as member for Buckingham. He was not re-elected in 1868, but sat for the city of London from 1874 until 22 July 1887, when he was raised to the peerage as Baron Addington of Addington in the county of Surrey. On 6 Aug. 1874 he was sworn of the privy council. In the House of Commons Hubbard was a recognised authority on financial questions. The income tax was his special study. He wrote on it several pamphlets, including 'How should an Income Tax be levied?' (1852). In 1861, in spite of the opposition of Mr. Gladstone, then chancellor of the exchequer, he carried a motion for a select committee to inquire into the assessment of the tax. Hubbard's schemes involved the application to imperial taxation of the principle now governing local rating, and they were afterwards largely adopted. Hubbard also spoke and wrote on the coinage, ecclesiastical difficulties, and education. He built and endowed St. Alban's Church, Holborn, which was consecrated 26 Feb. 1863, but afterwards (1868), in a letter to the Bishop of London, protested as churchwarden against certain ritualistic practices of which, though a high churchman, he did not approve [see under Mackonochie, Alexander Heriot].

Addington spoke for the last time in the House of Lords on the third reading of the Customs and Inland Revenue Bill, 28 May 1889, and died at Addington Manor 28 Aug. 1889. He was buried in the parish churchyard. He married, 19 May 1837, Maria Margaret, eldest daughter of William John,