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Howard
Howard
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son, but he revoked at the last moment a bequest to Suffolk of his furniture and movables because he and Suffolk were rival candidates for the treasurership, and it was reported when he was dying that Suffolk was to be appointed.

Despite his lack of principle, Northampton displayed a many-sided culture, and was reputed the most learned nobleman of his time. His taste in architecture is proved by his enlargement of Greenwich Castle, by the magnificence of his London residence, afterwards Northumberland House, which was built at his cost from the designs of Moses Glover [q.v.], and by his supervision of Thorpe's designs for Audley End, the residence of his nephew Suffolk. He planned and endowed three hospitals, one at Clun, Shropshire; a second at Castle Rising, Norfolk, for twelve poor women (cf. Blomefield, Norfolk, ix. 55-6), and a third at Greenwich, called Norfolk College, for twelve poor natives of Greenwich, and for eight natives of Shottesham, Northampton's birthplace. He laid the foundation-stone of the college at Greenwich, 25 Feb. 1613-14, and placed its management under the Mercers' Company. He was a witty talker, and his friend Bacon has recorded some of his remarks in his ‘Apophthegms’ (Bacon, Works, ed. Spedding, vii. 154, 164, 171). Bacon chose him as ‘the learnedest councillor’ in the kingdom to present his ‘Advancement of Learning’ to James I (Spedding, Bacon, iii. 252). George Chapman inscribed a sonnet to him which was printed before his translation of Homer (1614). Ben Jonson and he were, on the other hand, bitter foes (Jonson, Conversations, p. 22).

Besides the work on astrology and the manuscript treatises by Northampton already noticed, there are extant a translation by him of Charles V's last advice to Philip II, dedicated to Elizabeth (Harl. MSS. 836 and 1056; Cott. MS. Titus C. xviii.; and Bodl. Libr. Rawl. MS. B. 7, f. 32, while the dedicatory epistle appears alone in Lambeth MS. dccxi. 20); and devotional treatises (Harl. MS. 255, and Lambeth MS. 660). Cottonian MS. Titus, c. 6, a volume of 1200 pages, contains much of Northampton's correspondence, a treatise on government, a devotional work, notes of Northampton's early correspondence with James and Cecil, and a commonplace book entitled ‘Concilia Privata.’

A portrait dated 1606 belongs to the Earl of Carlisle.

[The fullest account appears in Nott's edition of Surrey's and Wyatt's Poems, 1815, i. 427-74; it is absurdly laudatory. See also Gardiner's Hist. of England; Birch's Memoirs; Walpole's Royal and Noble Authors, ed. Park ii. 148 sq.; Sanderson's Life of James I; Winwood's Memorials; Court of James I, 1812; D'Ewes's Autobiography; Wotton's Remains, 1685, p. 385; Doyle's Baronage; Brydges's Memoirs of Peers of James I; Nichols's Progresses of James I; Edwards' s Life of Sir W. Ralegh; Spedding's Bacon; Amos's Trial of the Earl of Somerset, pp. 42-5; Causton's Howard Papers; Goodman's Court of James I.; Cat. Cottonian MSS.]

S. L.

HOWARD, HENRY, sixth Duke of Norfolk (1628–1684), born on 12 July 1628, was the second son of Henry Frederick Howard, second earl of Arundel [q. v.], by Lady Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of Esme, third duke of Lennox (Doyle, Official Baronage, ii. 597-8). Before the Restoration he passed much time abroad. In October 1645 he journeyed from Venice to visit John Evelyn (1620-1706) [q.v.] at Padua. He again went abroad in company with his elder brother, Thomas, in January 1652 and August 1653 (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1651-2 p. 548, 1653-4 p. 434). By 10 Aug. 1655 he was settled at his villa at Albury, Surrey, where Evelyn visited him and admired his pictures and curiosities. According to Evelyn, Howard was mainly instrumental in persuading the king to restore the dukedom of Norfolk, 29 Dec. 1660, which fell to his brother Thomas (1627-1677), and, jealous of the family honour, he compounded a debt of 200,000l. contracted by his grandfather, Thomas, earl of Arundel (1586-1646) [q.v.] (Evelyn, Diary, 19 June 1662). As Lord Henry Howard he became a member of Lincoln's Inn on 4 Nov. 1661, and was high steward of Guildford, Surrey, from 1663 to 1673. On 21 Feb. 1663-4 he left London with his brother Edward to visit his friend Walter, count Leslie, whom the emperor Leopold I had lately nominated his ambassador extraordinary to Constantinople. At Vienna he was introduced by Leslie to the emperor, and was liberally entertained (cf. A Relation of a Journey of … Lord Henry Howard, &c., London, 1671; Collins, Peerage, ed. Brydges, i. 133-5).

He returned to England in 1665, and on 28 Nov. 1666 became F.R.S. After the fire of London Howard granted the Royal Society the use of rooms at Arundel House in the Strand, and, on 2 Jan. 1667, at Evelyn's suggestion presented it with the greater part of his splendid library, which he had much neglected. A portion of the manuscripts was given to the College of Arms, of which a catalogue was compiled by Sir C. G. Young in 1829. The Royal Society sold their share of the Arundel manuscripts (excepting the Hebrew and Oriental) to the trustees of the British Museum in 1830 for the sum of 3,559l.,