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which was devoted to the purchase of scientific books. In 1668, when it was proposed to build a college for the society's meetings, Howard, who was on the committee, gave a piece of ground in the garden of Arundel House for a site, and drew designs for the building (Weld, Hist, of Roy. Soc.) During September 1667 Evelyn persuaded Howard to give the Arundelian marbles, which were lying neglected in the same garden, to the university of Oxford. The university made him a D.C.L. on 5 June 1668, at the same time conferring on his two sons, Henry and Thomas, of Magdalen College, the degree of M.A. Howard was raised to the peerage, with the title of Baron Howard of Castle Rising in Norfolk, on 27 March 1669, and in the following April went as ambassador extraordinary to Morocco. On the death of his first wife, Lady Anne Somerset, elder daughter of Edward, second marquis of Worcester, in 1662, he is said to have fallen into a deep melancholy, which was increased by the loss of his friend Sir Samuel Tuke on 25 Jan. 1671. He sought relief in a course of dissipation, which impaired both his fortune and reputation. On 19 Oct. 1677 he was advanced to be earl of Norwich, earl-marshal, and hereditary earl-marshal, and on 1 Dec. following he succeeded his brother Thomas as sixth duke of Norfolk. In 1678 he married his mistress, Jane, daughter of Robert Bickerton, gentleman of the wine cellar to Charles II. He died at Arundel House on 11 Jan. 1684, and was buried at Arundel, Sussex. By his first wife he had two sons, Henry, seventh duke [q. v.], and Thomas, and three daughters. By his second wife, who died on 28 Aug. 1693, he had four sons and three daughters. Though good-natured he was a man of small capacity and rough manners. ‘A Relation of a Journey of ... Lord Henry Howard from London to Vienna, and thence to Constantinople,’ was published under Howard's name, 12mo, London, 1671 . There is a picture of him by Mary Beale in the National Portrait Gallery, and It has been engraved.

[Evelyn's Diary; Hamilton's Memoirs of Count de Grammont ; Granger's Biog. Hist. of England (6th edit.), iii. 186.]

G. G.

HOWARD, HENRY, seventh Duke of Norfolk (1655–1701), born on 11 Jan. 1655, was the son of Henry, sixth duke of Norfolk (1628-1684) [q. v.], by his first wife, Lady Anne Somerset, elder daughter of Edward, second marquis of Worcester (Doyle, Official Baronage, ii. 598-9). He was educated at Magdalen College, Oxford, and was created M.A. on 5 June 1668. From 1678 until 1684 he was styled Earl of Arundel, but he was summoned to parliament as Baron Mowbray on 27 Jan. 1679. On the death of Prince Rupert he was constituted constable of Windsor Castle and warden of the forest and parks, 16 Dec. 1682, and became on the same day lord-lieutenant of Berkshire and Surrey. He was chosen high steward of Windsor on 17 Jan. 1683, lord-lieutenant of Norfolk on 5 April in the same year, and succeeded his father as seventh duke of Norfolk on 11 Jan. 1684. The university of Oxford created him a D.C.L. on 1 Sept. 1684. On the accession of James II he signed the order, dated at Whitehall on 6 Feb. 1685, for proclaiming him king, and was made K.G. on 6 May following. He was appointed colonel of a regiment of foot on 20 June 1685, but resigned his command in June 1686. One day James gave the duke (a staunch protestant) the sword of state to carry before him to the popish chapel, but he stopped at the door, upon which the king said to him, ‘My lord, your father would have gone further;’ to which the duke answered, ‘Your majesty s father was the better man, and he would not have gone so far’ (Burnet, Own Time, Oxf. ed., i. 684). In 1687 the duke undertook to act as James's agent in Surrey and Norfolk, for the purpose of obtaining information as to the popular view of the Declaration of Indulgence. On 24 March 1688 he went to France, but returning home by way of Flanders on 30 July joined in the invitation to the Prince of Orange. In November following he was among the protestant lords in London who petitioned James II to call a parliament ‘regular and free in all respects.’ The petition was presented on 17 Nov., and the same day the king, after promising to summon such a parliament, left for Salisbury to put himself at the head of his army. Thereupon the duke, attended by three hundred gentlemen armed and mounted, went to the market-place of Norwich, and was there met by the mayor and aldermen, who engaged to stand by him against popery and arbitrary power. He soon brought over the eastern counties to the interest of the Prince of Orange, and raised a regiment, which was afterwards employed in the reduction of Ireland. Howard accompanied William to St. James's Palace on 18 Dec., and on the 21st was among the lords who appealed to him to call a free parliament. He voted for the settlement of the crown on the Prince and Princess of Orange, who were proclaimed on 13 Feb. 1689, and the next day was sworn of their privy council. He was also continued constable of Windsor Castle, and became colonel of a regiment of foot (16 March 1689), lord-lieutenant of Norfolk, Surrey, and Berkshire (6 May 1689), acting captain-general of

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