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even by Morland. His paintings lack, however, Morland's freedom of composition, and were usually too small in size to make much effect. In his landscape-painting Ibbetson somewhat resembled Richard Wilson, R.A. He also painted small portraits in a neat and rapid manner. His paintings of animals were much prized, especially in Yorkshire, where they are often to be met with in private houses. Benjamin West called him the 'Berghem' of England. He also painted in water-colour in the old tinted method with great success. Good specimens of his work in this class can be seen in the print room at the British Museum, and at the South Kensington Museum. In 1792 he made some drawings in the West of England, which were aquatinted and published by J. Hassell in 1793 as A Picturesque Guide to Bath (and its Neighbourhood).' In 1803 he published the first part of ' An Accidence or Gamut of Painters in Oil and Water-colours,' illustrating it with examples of both specimens. A second edition was published in 1828 with a memoir and a portrait after J. R. Smith. Ibbetson also published a 'Process of Tinted Drawing,' and executed numerous etchings and aquatints, some of a humorous character. Many of his paintings were engraved. He also made the drawings for Church's 'Cabinet of Quadrupeds,' published in 1796.

[Memoir mentioned above; information from Miss Julia Green; Fisher's History of Masham; Redgrave's Dict. of Artists; Roget's Old Water-Colour Society; Gent. Mag. 1817, lxxxvii. 637; Catalogues of the Royal Academy and British Institution; Seguier's Dict. of Painters; Redgraves' Century of Painters.]

L. C.

IBBOT, BENJAMIN, D.D. (1680–1725), divine, son of Thomas Ibbot, vicar of Swaffham and rector of Beachamwell, Norfolk, was born at Beachamwell in 1680. He was admitted at Clare Hall, Cambridge, 25 July 1695. Having graduated B.A. in 1699, he migrated to Corpus Christi College in 1700, and became a scholar of that house. He commenced M.A. in 1703, and was elected to a Norfolk fellowship in 1706, but resigned it the next year on becoming librarian (and afterwards chaplain) to Archbishop Tenison. He was installed treasurer of the cathedral church of Wells, 13 Nov. 1708, by the option of Archbishop Tenison, who also presented him to the rectory of the united parishes of St. Vedast, alias Foster's, and St. Michael Querne, London. In 1713 and 1714, by appointment of the archbishop, he preached the Boyle lectures, and replied to Anthony Collins's 'Discourse of Free-thinking in matters Religion.' George I appointed him one of his chaplains-in-ordinary in 1716, and when his majesty visited Cambridge on 6 Oct. 1717 Ibbot was, by royal mandate, created D.D. He was appointed preacher-assistant to Dr. Samuel Clarke at St. James's, Westminster, and rector of St. Paul's, Shadwell; and on 26 Nov. 1724 was installed a prebendary of Westminster. He died at Camberwell on 5 April 1725, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

His chief works are: 1. Six occasional sermons, including 'The Nature and Extent of the Office of the Civil Magistrate, considered in a Sermon [on Acts xviii. 14, 15] preached … Sept. 29 … being … the Election Day of a Lord Mayor for the year ensuing,' London (three editions), 1720, 4to. This gave offence, and was answered by Silas Drayton in a pamphlet entitled 'Gallio reproved,' 1721, by Joseph Slade in 'Gallionism truly stated,' 1721, and by another writer under the pseudonym of 'Philoclesius.' 2. 'Thirty Discourses on Practical Subjects,' 2 vols., London, 1726, 8vo, selected from his manuscripts by his friend Dr. Samuel Clarke, and published for the benefit of his widow; 2nd edit., 2 vols., London, 1776, 8vo, containing some account of the life and writings of the author by Roger Flexman, D.D. 3. 'A Course of Sermons preached for the Lecture founded by the Hon. Robert Boyle … in 1713 and 1714, wherein the true notion of the exercise of Private Judgment, or Free-thinking, in matters of Religion, is stated [against Anthony Collins],' 2 parts, London, 1727, 8vo; reprinted in vol. ii. of 'A Defence of Natural and Revealed Religion,' London, 1739, fol.

[Memoir by Flexman; Masters's Corpus Christi Coll. p. 317. App. p. 98; Lowndes's Bibl. Man. (Bohn), pp. 249, 1158; Le Neve's Fasti (Hardy), i. 174, iii. 365 ; Addit. MS. 5873, f. 43.]

T. C.

IBBOTSON, HENRY (1816?–1886), botanist, was a schoolmaster successively at Mowthorpe, near Castle Howard, at Dunnington, and at Grimthorpe, near Whitwell, all in Yorkshire. He was an industrious student of botany, but passed his last years in great penury, earning a scanty living by digging officinal roots for the druggists. He died at York on 12 Feb. 1886.

Ibbotson was an active contributor to Baines's ' Flora of Yorkshire' (1840), to its supplement (1854), and to Baker's North Yorkshire' (1863). He wrote a pamphlet on the ferns of his native county, 1884; but his chief production, a laborious compilation of all the synonyms of British plants known to him, entitled 'A Catalogue of the Phænogamous Plants of Great Britain,' came out in parts, from 1846 to 1848, in small octavo. He also distributed sets of the rarer