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plants of the northern counties; his collections obtained high praise from Sir William Joseph Hooker [q. v.]

[Nat. Hist. Journ. and School Reporter, 15 March 1886; W. J. Hooker's Lond. Journ. Bot. iv. 496. In the Catalogue of the British Museum he is confused with the author of a tract on slavery, 1841.]

B. D. J.

IBHAR or IBERIUS, Saint (d. 500?), bishop of Begery or Begerin, born early in the fifth century, may have belonged to the tribe of the Ui-Eachach Uladh in Iveagh, co. Down. He was probably a pupil of St. Patrick, and received the name Ibhar on becoming a Christian. He lived at first in the Arran Islands in Galway Bay, afterwards on Geshille Plain, King's County, then in the island of Begerin in Wexford Haven. He kept a school, and soon gathered monks around him, and his memory is preserved in various local traditions. He died at Begerin about A.D. 500. He is locally known as St. Ivory, and is commemorated on 23 April.

[All the authorities are collected in Smith's Dict. of Christian Biog. iii. 197; cf. also Webb's Compendium of Irish Biography, and Notes and Queries, 5th ser. i. 469.]

W. A. J. A.

ICKHAM, PETER of (fl. 1290?), chronicler, is said to have derived his name from a small village near Canterbury; Bale and Pits state that he spent much time at the university of Paris, in close literary intimacy with Philip, the chancellor of the university (i.e. apparently Philippe de Grève, chancellor from 1218 to 1237). The compilers of the 'Hist. Littér, de la France,' xix. 432, ed. 1838, state, however, without mentioning their authority, that he was invited to France by Philip III, who was king from 1270 to 1285. On leaving Paris he seems to have become a monk at Canterbury. Bale and Pits quote Leland's ' Collectanea ' for the statement that he flourished in 1274, but the printed copies of Leland do not contain the passage; the name appears in a list of the monks of the priory of Canterbury under the year 1294 (Register in MS. Norwic. More., fol. 64, ap. Tanner). A Peter of Ickham, however, according to an obituary of the monks of Christ Church, Canterbury, by Thomas Cowston (Lambeth MS. 582, ap. Todd), died in 1289, but another manuscript in the same library (Wharton MS. iii. ap. Tanner) gives 1295 for the year of his death.

Ickham is usually regarded, apparently on the authority of Dr. Caius, as the author of the meagre and somewhat confused chronicle entitled 'Chronicon de Regibus Angliæ successive regnantibus a tempore Bruti' (or 'Compilatio de Gestis Britonum et Anglorum '), extant (with continuations) in thirteen or fourteen manuscripts (Cott. MS.Domit. iii. ff. 1-38; Bodl. MS. Laud. 730; C. C. C. Cant. MS. 339, 3, &c., see Hardy, Descript. Catal. iii. 272), terminating at various dates between 1272 and 1471; but the chronicle shows signs of having been written at Worcester rather than at Canterbury (Hardy, u.s.) Bale and Pits also ascribe to Ickham' Genealogies of the Kings of Britain and England, written in French during his stay in Paris. They probably refer to the two treatises called 'Le livere de reis de Brittame' and 'Le livere de reis de Engleterre,' which were edited by Mr. Glover in 1865 for the Rolls Series. They contain, however, no distinct indication of their authorship.

[Bale's Script. Illustr. Maj. Brit. Cent. iv. No. xliii.(ed. Basel); Pits, De Illustr. Script. Angliæ, p. 355; Tanner's Bibl. Script. Brit.-Hib. p. 787; G. J. Voss, De Historicis Latinis,p. 494, Leyden, 1651; Fabricius, Bibl. Med. et Inf. Latinitatis, v. 261; Bulæus, Hist. Univ. Paris, iii. 705, Paris, 1667-73; Hist. Litt. de la France; T. D. Hardy's Descr. Catal. of Brit. Hist. iii. (Rolls Ser.)]

J. T-t.

ICKWORTH, Lord HERVEY of. [See Hervey, John, 1696–1743.]

IDA (d. 559), the first Bernician king, the son of Eobba, began to reign in Northumbria in 547. Before his time the northeast coast appears to have been invaded and colonised by Angles under the leadership of ealdormen who fought with the Britons. The assertion that Ida was the leader of a new invading host which came with sixty ships and landed at Flamborough (De Primo Saxonum Adventu) is untrustworthy; his assumption of the kingship was a change which followed almost necessarily on the increase of the power of the invaders, and may have been the result either of general consent or of a victorious struggle (compare Bæda, Historia Ecclesiastica, v. c. 24, and William of Malmesbury, Gesta Regum, i. c. 44). Ida is said to have been in the prime of his life and vigour when he became king, and in common with all the founders of dynasties among the Teutonic invaders of Britain, he is given a descent from Woden. He built himself a fortress, called by the Britons Dinguardi or Dinguoaroy, and by the Angles Bebbanburch, the modern Bamborough, which was surrounded first by a hedge and later by a wall, and took its Anglic name from Bebbe, the wife of Æthelfrid, Ida's grandson, and one of his successors (d. 617?), Ida's immediate kingdom did not probably extend south of the Tees, though his power may have been felt beyond that river, for the