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states that he wrote part of the earlier play. In the dedicatory epistle before the 'Rival Ladies,' 1664, Dryden had contended that rhyme is more suitable than blank verse for dramatic purposes. Howard (whose blank verse is execrable) opposed this view in the preface to 'Foure New Plays;' Dryden replied in the 'Essay of Dramatic Poesy,' 1668; Howard retorted somewhat superciliously in the preface to his 'Great Favourite; or the Duke of Lerma; a Tragedy,' 1668, 4to; and Dryden had the last word in a politely ironical 'Defence of an Essay,' &c. (which he subsequently cancelled), prefixed to the second edition of the ' Indian Emperor,' 1668 [see Dryden, John]. In 1668 Howard dedicated to Buckingham 'The Duel of the Staggs; a Poem,' 4to, which was satirised by Lord Buckhurst in a poem entitled 'The Duel of the Crabs' (cf. State Poems,1699,pt. i. p.201).

The five plays mentioned above were collected in 1692, fol., and again in 1722, 12mo; a sixth, 'The Blind Lady,' was printed with the 'Poems;' the 'Conquest of China by the Tartars,' a tragedy, which Dryden expressed the intention of altering at a cost of 'six weeks' study,' was never published (Notes and Queries, 1st ser. v. 225, 281). Howard's prose writings are 'Reign of King Richard II,' 1681, 8vo; 'Account of the State of his Majesties Revenue,' 1681, fol.; 'Historical Observations on the Reigns of Edward I, II, III, and Richard II,' 1689, 4to; 'Reigns of Edward and Richard II,' 1690, 12mo; and 'History of Religion, by a Person of Quality,' 1694, 8vo.

[Ashtead and its Howard Possessors(privately printed), 1873; Langbaine's Dram. Poets, with Oldys's MS. Annotations; Wood's Athenæ, ed. Bliss; Macaulay's Hist.; Pepys's Diary; Evelyn's Diary; Luttrell's Brief Relation; Memoirs of Sir John Reresby, p. 226; Cibber's Lives; Jacob's Poet. Reg.; Baker's Biog. Dram., ed. Jones; Scott's Dryden, 1821; Genest's Account of the English Stage.]

A. H. B.

HOWARD, SAMUEL (1710–1782), organist and composer, born in 1710, was a chorister of the Chapel Royal under Dr. William Croft [q. v.] After continuing his musical studies under Pepusch, he became organist of St. Clement Danes, Strand, and St. Bride's, Fleet Street. In 1769 he graduated Mus.Doc. at Cambridge. He died on 13 July 1782, at his house in Norfolk Street, Strand.

Howard composed much popular music. His incidental music to the 'Amorous Goddess' was performed at Drury Lane, and published in 1744. His two songs in 'Love in a Village' (1764?), 'O had I been by Fate decreed,' and 'How much superior beauty awes,' were sung by Incledon and Mattocks, and he was part composer of 'Netley Abbey' and 'The Mago and the Dago.' His church music includes the anthem for voices and orchestra, 'This is the Day,' performed at St. Margaret's, 1792, and several psalm and hymn tunes, two, named respectively 'Howard' and 'St. Brides,' being widely known. His songs are numerous. A collection called 'The Musical Companion,' 1775?, contains about fifty of his cantatas, solos, and duets. The accompaniments are for harpsichord and violin. The words of 'To Sylvia'are by Garrick; of 'Would you long preserve a Lover?' by Congreve; and 'Florellio and Daphne' by Shenstone. The collection includes Howard's `Lass of St. Osyth,' 'Advice to Chloe,' and his 'Six Songs sung by Miss Davies at Vauxhall.' Other songs by Howard not included in this volume are 'Lucinda's Name,' addressed to the Princess Amelia, 1740? 'Nutbrown Maid,' and 'I like the Man' (1750?). Some of his songs also appeared in the 'British Orpheus,' bk. iv., and in the 'Vocal Musical Mask.' His style was dull, even in his most admired 'musettes.' Howard assisted Boyce in the compilation of 'CathedralMusic,' and his most valuable work is probably to be found there.

[Gent. Mag. lii. 359; A.B.C. Dario Musico; Dict. of Music, 1827, i. 378; Grove's Dict. of Music, i. 759; Brown's Biog. Dict. p. 334; Howard's music in the British Museum Library.]

L. M. M.

HOWARD, THEOPHILUS, second Earl of Suffolk (1584–1640), baptised on 13 Aug. 1584, was the eldest son of Thomas, first earl of Suffolk (1561-1626) [q. v.], by his second wife, Catherine, widow of Richard, eldest son of Robert, lord Rich, and daughter and coheiress of Sir Henry Knevet, knt., of Charlton, Wiltshire (Doyle, Official Baronage, iii. 449-50). As Lord Howard of Walden he was created M.A. of Oxford on 30 Aug. 1605 (Wood, Fasti Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 314), and from 4 Nov. 1605 to 8 Feb. 1610 he sat as M.P. for Maldon, Essex (Lists of Members of Parliament, Official Return, pt. i. p. 443). On the latter date he was summoned to the upper house as Baron Howard de Walden. He became joint steward of several royal manors in South Wales on 30 June 1606, lieutenant of the band of gentlemen pensioners in July of the same year, councillor for the colony of Virginia on 23 May 1609, and governor of Jersey and Castle Cornet on 26 March 1610. In the latter year he served as a volunteer with the English forces at the siege of Juliers, and there engaged in a notable quarrel with Edward, lord Herbert of Cherbury (Herbert, Autobiography, ed. 1886, pp. 73-7, and App.) He became keeper in reversion of the Tower of Greenwich on 2 July 1611, keeper of Green-