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Howard
Howard
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wich Park six days later, and joint lord-lieutenant of Cumberland, Westmoreland, and Northumberland on 11 Feb. 1614. On 14 July of the last-named year he was promoted to the captaincy of the band of gentlemen pensioners, but had to resign it on the disgrace of his father in December 1619. After January 1619 he was made vice-admiral of Northumberland, Durham, Cumberland, Westmoreland, and Dorsetshire, and was reappointed captain of the band of gentlemen pensioners in January 1620, a post which he held until May 1635. On 28 May 1626 he succeeded his father as second Earl of Suffolk and hereditary visitor of Magdalene College, Cambridge, and was appointed during the same year lord-lieutenant of Cambridgeshire, Suffolk, Dorsetshire, and the town of Poole (15 June) and a privy councillor (12 Nov.) He was installed high steward of Ipswich on 19 March 1627, K.G. on 24 April following, lord warden of the Cinque ports and constable of Dover Castle on 22 July 1628, lieutenant of the Cinque ports on 2 Sept. of the same year, governor of Berwick in June 1635, and a commissioner of regency on 26 March 1639. Howard died on 3 June 1640 at Suffolk House in the Strand, and was buried at Saffron Walden, Essex (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1640, p. 266). In March 1612 he married Lady Elizabeth Home, daughter and coheiress of George Home, earl of Dunbar [q.v.], and by this lady, who died on 19 Aug. 1633, had four sons and five daughters. His eldest son, James Howard, third earl of Suffolk, is separately noticed.

[Authorities in the text.]

G. G.

HOWARD, THOMAS I, Earl of Surrey and second Duke of Norfolk of the Howard house (1443–1524), warrior and statesman, was only son of Sir John Howard, afterwards first duke of Norfolk [q.v.], by his wife Catharine, daughter of William, lord Moleyns. He was born in 1443, was educated at the school at Thetford, and began a long career of service at court as henchman to Edward IV. He took part in the war which broke out in 1469 between the king and the Earl of Warwick, and when, in 1470, Edward was driven to flee to Holland, Howard took sanctuary at Colchester. On Edward's return in 1471, Howard joined him and fought by his side in the battle of Barnet. On 30 April 1472 he married Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of Sir Frederick Tilney, and widow of Humphrey, lord Berners. Soon afterwards he went as a volunteer to the camp of Charles, duke of Burgundy, who was threatening war against Louis XI of France. He did not see much service, and after the truce of Senlis came back to England, where he was made esquire of the body to Edward IV in 1473. In June 1475 he led six men-at-arms and two hundred archers to join the king's army in France; but Edward soon made peace with Louis XI, and led his forces home without a battle. Howard then took up his abode at his wife's house of Ashwellthorpe Hall, Norfolk, where he lived the life of a country gentleman, and in 1476 was made sheriff of the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk, On 18 Jan. 1478 he was knighted by Edward IV at the marriage between the king's second son, the young Duke of York (then created also Duke of Norfolk), and Lady Anne Mowbray, only child of John, duke of Norfolk. Anne Mowbray died in 1483, before the consummation of her marriage, and the direct line of the Mowbrays became extinct, whereupon Howard's father, as next of kin, was created Duke of Norfolk, and his son Earl of Surrey. In the same year Surrey was made knight of the Garter, was sworn of the privy council, and was appointed lord steward of the household.

Surrey had now taken his place as a courtier and an official, and henceforth was distinguished by loyalty to the actual wearer of the crown, whoever he might be. He acquiesced in Richard III's usurpation, and carried the sword of state at his coronation (Excerpta Historica, p.380). He and his father fought for Richard at Bosworth Field, where his father was killed and he was taken prisoner. He was attainted by the first parliament of Henry VII, and his estates were forfeited. He was also committed to the Tower, where he remained for three years and a half, receiving the liberal allowance of 2l. a week for his board (Campbell, Materials for a History of Henry VII, i. 208). Misfortune did not shake his principle of loyalty to the powers that be, and he refused to seek release by favouring rebellion. When, in June 1487, the Earl of Lincoln invaded England, and the lieutenant of the Tower offered to open the doors to Surrey, he refused the chance of escape. Henry VII soon saw that Surrey could be converted into an official, and would serve as a conspicuous example to other nobles. In January 1489 he was released, and was restored to his earldom, though the calculating king kept the greater part of his forfeited lands, and gave back only those which he held in right of his wife, and those which had been granted to the Earl of Oxford (ib. ii. 420). In May he was sent to put down a rising in Yorkshire, caused by the pressure of taxation. The Earl of Northumberland had been slain by