Austin Friars on 14 Oct. 1593. From another entry in the same register we learn that his mother's name was Johanna. The family surname seems to have been Van Ceulen. Janssen was practising as a portrait-painter in London in 1618, and for the next twenty years was the fashionable depicter of the court nobility and gentry in England. He dwelt in the Blackfriars for some years, but in 1636 he went to reside with or near a Dutch merchant, Sir Arnold Braems, at Bridge, near Barham Down, close to Canterbury. During his residence there he painted numerous portraits of the neighbouring families of Aucher, Digges, and Hammond. A portrait by him of Lady Bowyer, who was famous for her beauty, was especially noted by his contemporaries. Many families in England preserve portraits of their ancestors painted by, or attributed to, Cornelius Janssen. He signed his pictures most frequently in full, ‘Cornelius Jonson [and occasionally Johnson] Van Ceulen.’ Among his large family groups were those of the Rushout family, the Lucy family (destroyed by fire) at Charlecote, the Verney family, and Arthur, lord Capel, at Cassiobury. A portrait of Milton at the age of ten, attributed to him, is engraved in Masson's ‘Life of Milton,’ vol. i. Janssen's colouring was cool and subdued, and he was especially fond of black dresses and grey or deep brown shadows, but was extremely successful in his likenesses. He painted small portraits also, but apparently not miniatures. On the arrival of Vandyck in London Janssen's fame was somewhat overshadowed. The similarity in the style of some of their portraits has led to the presumption that he was influenced by the more popular manner of Vandyck. It is not impossible that Vandyck as the junior artist may have, on the other hand, based some of his portraits on the successful style of Janssen. The outbreak of the civil war led to a further diminution of Janssen's practice. On 10 Oct. 1643 he obtained a warrant from the parliament to leave England with his family, goods, and chattels. He crossed to Middelburg in Holland, where he resided a short time, and became a member of the Guild of St. Luke there. He then moved to the Hague, where he painted numerous portraits, including a huge group of the leading citizens of the town. Subsequently he went to Amsterdam, continuing to practice as a painter. He must have died in or before 1664, as his widow is mentioned at Utrecht in that year. He had married, on 16 July 1622, at the Dutch Church, Austin Friars, Elizabeth Beke of Colchester, and he left a son of the same name as himself, who practised, with less success, as a portrait-painter. A portrait by the son of William III as a boy is in the National Portrait Gallery. Janssen's sister Clara was married on 27 Nov. 1604 at the Dutch Church, Austin Friars, to Nicasius Rousseel, and their son, Theodore Rousseel (or Russell), resided many years with Cornelius Janssen in London. A portrait of Janssen was engraved for Walpole's ‘Anecdotes of Painting,’ and it is recorded that Adriaen Hanneman [q. v.] painted a group of Janssen with his wife and son.
[Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting; Vertue's MSS. (Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 23072, &c.); Immerzeel's Levens en Werken der Hollandsche en Vlaamsche Konstschilders; Obreen's Archief voor Nederlandsche Kunstgeschiedenis, vi. 171; Moens's Register of the Dutch Church, Austin Friars; Oud Holland, vol. viii.; information from Dr. Abraham Bredius and George Scharf, esq., C.B., F.S.A.]
JARDINE, ALEXANDER (d. 1799), lieutenant-colonel, captain royal invalid artillery, entered the artillery as a private matross in March 1755, and was transferred to the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, as a cadet in June 1757. (Promotion from the ranks to commissions in the artillery did not cease entirely until 1776.) Jardine passed out of the academy as a lieutenant-fireworker on 8 Feb. 1758, became a second lieutenant on 11 Sept. 1762, first lieutenant on 28 May 1766, captain-lieutenant on 28 April 1773, was transferred to the invalid establishment on 1 Nov. 1776, became captain in 1777, brevet-major in 1783, and brevet lieutenant-colonel in 1793. While stationed at Gibraltar he collected a mass of valuable professional observations, and presented them in 1772 to the Regimental Society, Woolwich, which he actively helped to establish in 1772–5. These papers are now in the Royal Artillery Institute (cf. Royal Artillery Institute Proceedings, vol. i.). When at Gibraltar in 1771 Jardine was sent by the governor, General Stephen Cornwallis, on a mission to the emperor of Morocco. Jardine's account of Morocco, with letters written during subsequent visits to France and Spain, from Portugal in 1779, and from Jersey in 1787, were published by him under the title ‘Letters from Morocco, &c. By an English Officer,’ London, 1790, 2 vols. 8vo. Jardine died in Portugal on 16 July 1799.
[Kane's List of Officers Roy. Artillery (revised ed. Woolwich, 1869), p. 9; Proc. Roy. Art. Inst. vol. i. pp. xvii–xxxii; Duncan's Hist. Roy. Artillery, London, 1872; biographical notices prefixed to Lefroy's Official Cat. Artillery Museum; Jardine's Letters.]
JARDINE, DAVID (1794–1860), historical and legal writer, born at Pickwick, near Bath, in 1794, was son of David B.