mendation Landsborough was employed to write a popular history of British seaweeds, and the work, on its appearance in 1849, was so satisfactory, that he was commissioned to prepare a similar 'Popular History of British Zoophytes or Corallines,' which was published in 1852. In 1849 Landsborough was elected an associate of the Linnean' Society, and in the following year he was mainly instrumental in the establishment of the Ayrshire Naturalists' Club. He visited most parts of Scotland and Ireland on ministerial duty, and found opportunities of journeying through England and France. In 1852, when upwards of seventy-three, he visited Gibraltar and Tangier, returning by way of the Balearic Isles, Marseilles, Genoa, Turin, and Paris, He reached London, after five months' absence, just in time to witness Wellington's funeral.
An epidemic of cholera broke out in his district in 1854. Landsborough was most assiduous in visiting the sick and dying, but was himself attacked by the disease, and succumbed, after a very brief illness. at Saltcoats on 12 Sept. 1854. Landsborough is said to have discovered nearly seventy species of plants and animals new to Scotland, and thus well earned the title of 'the Gilbert White of Ardrossan.' He received the degree of D.D. from an American college in 1849. Besides the species already mentioned, in New Zealand genus of algæ was dedicated to him by Harvey as Landsburgia. Landsborough married in 1817 Margaret, daughter of James M'Leish of Port Glasgow, by whom he had four sons and three daughters. One son, William [q. v.], an Australian explorer, is noticed separately; and another, David, now free kirk minister of Kilmarnock. has edited the work on Arran. with a memoir of the writer (Ardrossan. 1875, 8vo).
In addition to the works above mentioned, of which the 'Popular History of British Seaweeds' reached a third edition in 1857, Landsborough published 'Ayrshire Sketches, or Memoirs of J. Charters, H. Cuninghame, and J. Baird,' 1839. 18mo: a series of religious biographies. His contributions to the 'Annals and Magazine of Natural History' and to the "Zoologist' deal with phosphorescence, the habits of the rook, and the pliocene and post-pliocene deposits at Stevenston.
[Memoir by David Landsborough in his edition of his father's work on Arran, 1875; Proceedings of the Linnean Society. ii. 426.]
LANDSBOROUGH. WILLIAM (d. 1886), Australian explorer, son of David Landsborough [q. v.] the naturalist, born at Stevenston, Ayrshire, Scotland, was educated at Irvine. On emigrating to Australia he became a squatter in New England, then in the Wide Bay district, and afterwards, Rockhampton, Queensland. He then discovered Mount Nebo and Fort Cooper, and in 1859 explored Peak Downs and Nagod. In 1860 be discovered the sources of the Thomson river, and in 1861 made a survey of the Gregory and Herbert rivers. Several expeditions were at this date sent out to search for Robert O'Hara Burke and William J. Wills, the explorers, who had not been heard of since the previous year. Landsborough headed one of these, and starting with four companions from the Albert river on 14 Nov. 1861, made a preliminary search to the south-west, going two hundred miles in the direction of Central Mount Stuart, and then returning to the depot. On 10 Feb. 1862 he again started, and crossed Australia from the Gulf of Carpentaria to Melbourne, discovering many fine rivers and much good country, but apparently making little effort to find Burke and Wills. The journal of his expedition was published. For his discoveries he was, on 12 Nov,, presented by Sir Henry Barkly, the governor of Victoria, with a service of plate valued at 500l., and received a gold watch from the president of the Royal Geographical Society, In 1864 he wag elected a member of the Queensland parliament, but resigned his seat in the following year on obtaining the appointment of government resident in Burke district. Finding Burketown very unhealthy, he removed his headquarters to Sweers Island, whence he made explorations of the Gulf of Carpentaria, He ceased to be government resident in 1869. Some time afterwards he was gazetted inspector of brands for East Moreton, Queensland, and for his public services in exploring was awarded a grant of 2,000l. He died at Brisbane in May 1886. He married the sixth daughter of Captain Rennie, by whom he had a daughter.
[Times, 3 Jane 1886. p, 7; Heaton's Australian Dict. of Dates, 1879, p. 111: Howitt's Hist. of Discovery in Australia, 1865, ii. 191, 284-95; Julian E. T. Wood's Hist, of Discovery in Australia. 1865. ii. 300. 495-74; Journal of Landsborough's Expedition from Carpentaria, 1862; Bourne's Journal of Landsborough's Expedition, 1862.]]
LANDSEER, CHARLES (1799–1879), historical painter, born in 1799, was second son of John Landseer, A.E.R.A. [q. v.], from whom he received his first instruction as an artist. He afterwards became a pupil of B. R. Haydon, and entered the schools of the Royal Academy in 1816. When a young man he