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and the Duchess Belgicioso on the Affairs of Italy …' 1848. 26. 'Italics' (English verse, printed 1848). 27. 'Popery, British and, Foreign,' 1851. 28. 'The Last Fruit off an Old Tree,' 1863, includes eighteen new 'imaginary conversations,' Popery, British and Foreign, 'Ten letters to Cardinal Wiseman,' letters to Brougham upon Southey from the 'Examiner,' and 'five scenes in verse' upon Beatrice Cenci. 29. 'Letters of an American, mainly on Russia and Revolution,' edited (written) by W. S. Landor, 1854. 30. 'Letter from W. S. Landor to R. W. Emerson,' 1856 (upon Emerson's 'English Tracts'). 31. 'Antony and Octavius, Scenes for the Study.' 1856. 32. 'Dry Sticks fagoted by W. S. Landor,' 1858. 33. 'Savonarola et il Priore di San Marco,' 1860. 34.'Heroic Idyls, with additional Poems,' 1863.

Landor published some pamphlets now not discoverable (see Forster, pp. 42, 128), and contributed some letters on 'High and Low Life in Italy' to Leigh Hunt's 'Monthly Repository' (December 1837 and succeeding numbers). Six 'imaginary conversations' and other selections are in J. Ablett's privately printed volume, 'Literary Hours by various Friends,' 1837, F. A poem on the 'Bath Subscription Ball,' conjecturally assigned to him in the Forster collection, cannot be his. A selection from his writings was published by G. S. Hillard in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1806, and another by Mr. Sidney Colvin in 1882, in the 'Golden Treasury Series.' An edition of his English works in eight vols. 8vo, the first volume of which contains the life by Forster (first published in 1969), appeared in 1876. The 'Conversations, Greeks and Romans,' were separately published in 1853, and a new edition of the 'Imaginary Conversations,' edited by Charles G. Crump, in six vols. 8vo, in 1891- 1892. Mr. Crump has also edited the 'Pericles and Aspasia' for the 'Temple Library' (1890).

[Life by John Forster. 1859, and first vol. of Works, I875; references above to the 1876 edit. R. H. Horne's New Spirit of the Age, 1844, i. 153-76 (article by Mrs. Browning); Madden's Life. &c. of Lady Blessington, 1855, i. 114. ii. 346-429 (correspondence of Landor and Lady Blessington); Lady Blessington's Idler in Italy, ii. 310-13; Lord Houghton's Monographs (from Edinburgh Review of July 1869); C. Dickens in All the Year Round, 24 July 1869; Kate Field in Atlantic Monthly for April, May, and June 1866 (Landor's last years in Italy); Mrs. Lynn Linton in Fraser's Mag. July 1870): Mrs. Crosse in Temple Bar for June 1891; H. Crabb Robinson's Diaries, ii. 481-4, 500, 520. iii. 42, 59, 105-8. 115; Southey's Life and Select letters, for a few letters from Southey to Landor, and incidental references; Sidney Colvin's Landor in Morley's Men of Letters]

L. S.

LANDSBOROUGH, DAVID (1779–1854), naturalist, born at Dairy, Glen Kens, Galloway, 11 Aug. 1779. was educated at the Dumfries academy, and from 1798 at the university of Edinburgh. Here, partly by his skill as a violinist, he made the acquaintance of Dr. Thomas Brown [q. v.] the metaphysician, and of the Rev. John Thomson of Duddingston, 'the Scottish Claude Lorraine,' from whom he derived a taste for painting. He became tutor in the family of Lord Glenlee at Barskimming in Ayrshire, was licensed for the ministry of the church of Scotland in 1808, and in 1811 was ordained minister of Stevenston, Ayrshire. In addition to his clerical duties, and while keeping up his scholarship by reading some Latin, Greek, Hebrew, French, or Italian daily, Landsborough seems to have early commenced the study of the natural history of his parish and that of the neighbouring island of Arran, which formed the subject of his first publication, a poem in six cantos, printed in 1828. He began his botanical studies with flowering plants, afterwards proceeding in succession to algæ. lichens, fungi, and mosses. His discovery of a new alga, Ectocarpus Landeburgii, brought him into communication with William Henry Harvey [q. v.], to whose 'Phycologia Britannica' he made many contributions; while this discovery of new marine animals, such as the species of Æolis and Lepralia that bear his name, introduced him to Dr. George Johnston of Berwick [q. v.] For many years he kept a daily register of the temperature, wind and weather, and noted the first flowering of plants and the arrival of migratory birds. He also studied land mollusca and the fossil plants of the neighbouring coal-field, one of which, Lyginodendron Landsburgii, bears his name. In 1837 he furnished the account of his parish of Stevenston to the 'Statistical Account' of the parishes of Scotland.

At the disruption of the Scottish church in 1843 he joined the free kirk, and became minister at Saltcoats but the change involved a reduction of income from 350l., to 120l. a year, and the loss of his garden, to which he was much attached. Its place was taken by the seashore, and many hundred sets of algæ prepared by his children under his direction were sold to raise a fund of 200l. in support of the church and schools. In 1845 he contributed a series of articles on 'Excursions to Arran' to 'The Christian Treasury,' and in 1847 they appeared in book form as 'Excursions to Arran, Ailsa Oraig, and the two Cumbraes,' a second series being published in 1852. On Harvey's recom-