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In 1509 he issued the ‘Sermo fratris Hieronymi de Ferraria’ and Barclay's translation of the ‘Ship of Fools,’ both containing Roman type, which had not before this time been used in England. In the latter book also we find the printer's coat-of-arms, probably but lately granted. Herbert describes it as follows: ‘Parted gyronny, of eight points three cinquefoils on a fess engrailed, between three eagles displayed.’ Though the birds are said to be eagles, they are more probably finches, a punning allusion to the name Pynson, the Norman word for a finch.

During his career he printed over three hundred different books, and, as king's printer, issued Henry's works against Luther. His will is dated 18 Nov. 1529, and was proved on 18 Feb. 1530, so that he would seem to have died at the beginning of the latter year. His daughter Margaret, widow of Stephen Ward, is named as the executrix, his son Richard having but lately died. At the time of his death Pynson was at work on an edition of Palsgrave's ‘Lesclarcissement de la langue francoyse,’ which was finished by John Hawkins in 1530 [see Palsgrave]. Pynson was succeeded in business at the sign of the George in Fleet Street by Robert Redman [q. v.], who had for some time previously been his rather unscrupulous rival.

[Ames's Typogr. Antiq. ed. Herbert, i. 238 et seq.; Duff's Early Printed Books, pp. 165 et seq.; Ellis's Orig. Letters, 3rd ser. ii. 210.]

E. G. D.

PYPER, WILLIAM (1797–1861), Scots professor of humanity, was born of poor parents in the parish of Rathen, Aberdeenshire. Matriculating at Marischal College, Aberdeen, he completed his course there with distinction. From 1815 to 1817 he was parochial schoolmaster at Laurence Kirk; he afterwards held a similar position at Maybole, and was a teacher in the grammar school of Glasgow in 1820. Two years later he succeeded James Gray in the high school of Edinburgh, and retained that post for twenty-two years. On 22 Oct. 1844 he was appointed professor of humanity at St. Andrews University, in succession to Dr. Gillespie. He obtained the degree of LL.D. from Aberdeen University. He died on 7 Jan. 1861, when his assistant, John Shairp (afterwards principal of St. Andrews), succeeded him in the humanity chair. Pyper was an excellent latinist, and a thorough classical scholar of the older type. He proved an admirable professor. He helped to organise and improve the university library. By a bequest of 500l. he founded a bursary at St. Andrews. He published: 1. ‘Gradus ad Parnassum,’ London, 1843, 12mo, a work still in use in schools. 2. ‘Horace, with Quantities,’ London, 1843, 18mo.

[Works in Brit. Libr.; Conolly's Eminent Men of Fife.]

A. H. M.

PYUS, THOMAS (1560–1610), author. [See Pye.]

QUÆLLY, MALACHIAS (d. 1645), archbishop of Tuam, called by Irish writers Maelseachlainn Ua Cadhla, by Colgan Queleus, and erroneously by Carte, O'Kelly, was son of Donatus Quælly, and was born in Clare. He belonged to a family which ruled Connemara till 1238, when they were conquered by the O'Flaherties. He became a student at the college of Navarre in Paris, and there graduated D.D. He returned to Ireland, became vicar-apostolic of Killaloe, and on 11 Oct. 1631 was consecrated archbishop of Tuam, in succession to Florence Conroy [q. v.], at Galway, by Thomas Walsh, archbishop of Cashel, Richard Arthur, bishop of Limerick, and Baeghalach Mac Aedhagain, bishop of Elphin. In 1632 he presided at a council held at Galway to enforce the decrees of the council of Trent in Ireland. He caused the ancient wooden figure of St. Mac Dara in the church of Cruachmic Dara, co. Galway, to be buried on the island, probably in consequence of some superstitious proceedings to which it had given rise. He attended the assembly of the confederate catholics at Kilkenny in 1645, and Innocent X recommended him by letter to Rinuccini as a man to be trusted. He wrote to John Colgan [q. v.] an interesting account of the Isles of Arran, describing their churches, which had not then been desecrated. It is printed in Colgan's ‘Acta Sanctorum Hiberniæ’ (p. 714), and is translated in Hardiman's edition of Roderic O'Flaherty's ‘Description of West Connaught.’ He raised a body of fighting men in Galway and Mayo, and joined the forces of Sir James Dillon, near Ballysadare, co. Sligo. On Sunday, 26 Oct. 1645, Viscount Taafe and Dillon dined with Quælly, and while they were dining the Irish forces were attacked by Sir Charles Coote, Sir William Cole, and Sir Francis Hamilton,