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Davids, which became vacant after the accession of George III, was given to him. He was consecrated on 24 May 1761. Gray, who often sneered at his hunger for preferment, wrote to Dr. Wharton in May 1761: ‘I wish you joy of Dr. Squire's bishoprick; he keeps both his livings and is the happiest of devils.’ A print called ‘The Pluralist’ sharply satirised him.

The Duke of Newcastle is said to have expressed dissatisfaction at Squire's promotion, and wished ‘the world to know that he had no hand in it.’ But Squire was under no misapprehension as to the declining influence of his old patron, and, with an eye to the future, openly assigned his good fortune to the discernment of the king's favourite, Lord Bute (Notes and Queries, 1st ser., i. 65–7).

The bishop died in Harley Street, London, London, on 7 May 1766, after a short illness. Despite his greed of place, Squire was at times a generous patron, and among others on whom he conferred favours was the unfortunate Dr. William Dodd [q. v.], who in return lauded him in his works (Dodd, Poems, pp. 82, 196; Thoughts in Prison, iv. 73; Mutual Knowledge in a Future State, 1766, 1767, 1782; for other instances of Squire's generosity see Gent. Mag. 1772, pp. 303–4; Europ. Mag. lvi. 87–8). Squire's dark complexion gave him the nickname of ‘The Man of Algola.’

Squire married, on 13 May 1752, Charlotte, eldest daughter of Thomas Ardesoif of Soho Square, and she died on 12 April 1771, in her fiftieth year. They left three children, the last surviving of whom, Samuel Squire, of the Inner Temple, died unmarried on 7 Sept. 1843, and was buried in the vaults under Leamington church.

Squire was elected F.R.S. on 15 May 1746 and F.S.A. on 2 March 1747–8, and was ‘an active member of both societies.’ He was a student of languages, especially of Saxon and Icelandic, and of history and antiquities. He left in manuscript a Saxon grammar of his composition, and sought to encourage the study of Anglo-Saxon at Cambridge. His published writings comprised: 1. ‘Ancient History of the Hebrews Vindicated, or Remarks on part of the third volume of the Moral Philosopher. By Theophanes Cantabrigiensis,’ 1741. 2. ‘Two Essays, the former a Defence of the ancient Greek Chronology; the latter an inquiry into the Origin of the Greek Language,’ 1741. This provoked an answer, ‘Miscellaneous Reflexions, arising from a perusal of Two Essays by Mr. Squire.’ 3. ‘Plutarchi de Iside et Osiride liber, Græce et Anglice’ [1744]. This work he emended and annotated, adding a new English version. 4. ‘An Enquiry into the Foundations of the English Constitution,’ 1745; new ed. with additions, 1753. Both were dedicated to the Duke of Newcastle. 5. ‘Letter to a Tory Friend on the present Critical Situation of our Affairs’ (anon.), 1746. 6. ‘Remarks on Mr. Carte's Specimen of his General History of England’ (anon.), 1748; attacking Carte's account of the Druids and laughing at the patronage of the Jacobites. 7. ‘A letter to John Trot-Plaid, author of the Jacobite Journal, on Mr. Carte's History. By Duncan MacCarte, a Highlander,’ 1748. 8. ‘Historical Essay on the balance of Civil Power in England’ (anon.), 1748. This was afterwards annexed to the second edition of his ‘English Constitution,’ 1753. 9. ‘Remarks on the Academic …’ (anon.), 1751; an attack on some regulations of Cambridge University. 10. ‘Indifference for Religion inexcusable,’ 1758; 3rd ed. 1763; dedicated to George, prince of Wales. 11. ‘The Principles of Religion made easy to young persons, in a short and familiar catechism,’ 1763; dedicated to Prince Frederic William, and nearly identical with that drawn up for the prince's private use. A made-up copy of the bishop's works, with numerous annotations and corrections by him, in four volumes, is at the British Museum. Prefixed is a manuscript account of his life by his son, Samuel Squire. The bishop was the author of a memoir of Thomas Herring [q. v.], archbishop of Canterbury, his old friend and patron, which appeared with that prelate's ‘Seven Sermons’ (1763). Some political letters by him appeared in the ‘Daily Gazetteer’ of 1740, with the signature of L. E., and many private communications to and from him are among the Newcastle Papers in the British Museum, Additional MSS. 32709–32992.

Squire's library was sold in 1767. It included the collections of Dr. John Pelling, his predecessor at Soho, which he purchased in 1750.

[Gent. Mag. 1762 p. 93, 1766 pp. 203–4, 247, 1771 p. 192; Drake's Blackheath, p. 99; Baker's St. John's Coll. Cambr. ed. Mayor, ii. 709–10; Thomson's Royal Society, App. iv. p. xliv; Le Neve's Fasti, i. 165, 195, 224, 305; Nichols's Illustr. of Lit. ii. 55, 825, 838, v. 766; Nichols's Lit. Anecdotes, ii. 348–52, iii. 637, viii. 272–4, 461; Cole's MSS. 5827 and 5831; Bishop Newton's Life, 1782, p. 60; Corresp. of Gray and Mason, pp. 97–8, 246, 513; Gray's Works, ed. Gosse, i. 127, ii. 326–7, iii. 103; Halkett and Laing, ii. 1383, iii. 2141, 2147.]

W. P. C.


SQUIRE, WILLIAM (d. 1677), controversialist, was son of a proctor in the archbishop of York's court. He entered Trinity Hall, Cambridge, in 1647, and graduated B.A. in 1650. He was incor-