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AUGMENT—AUGSBURG

and jadeite (NaAlSi2O6) molecules are also sometimes present. Variations in the amount of iron in mixtures of these isomorphous molecules are accompanied by variations in the optical characters of the augite.  (L. J. S.) 

AUGMENT (Lat. augere, to increase), in Sanskrit and Greek grammar the vowel prefixed to indicate the past tenses of a verb; in Greek grammar it is called syllabic, when only the ε is prefixed; temporal, when it causes an initial vowel in the verb to become a diphthong or long vowel.

AUGMENTATION, or enlargement, a term in heraldry for an addition to a coat of arms; in music, for the imitation in longer notes of an original theme; in biology, an addition to the normal number of parts; in Scots law, an increase of a minister’s stipend by an action called “Process of Augmentation.” The “Court of Augmentation” in Henry VIII.’s time was established to try cases affecting the suppression of monasteries, and was dissolved in Mary’s reign.

AUGSBURG, a city and episcopal see of Germany, in the kingdom of Bavaria, chief town of the district of Swabia. Pop. (1885) 65,905; (1900) 89,109; (1905) 93,882. It lies on a high plateau, 1500 ft. above the sea, between the rivers Wertach and Lech, which unite below the city, 39 m. W.N.W. from Munich, with which, as with Regensburg, Ingolstadt and Ulm, it is connected by main lines of railway. It consists of an upper and a lower town, the old Jakob suburb and various modern suburbs. Its fortifications were dismantled in 1703 and have since been converted into public promenades. Maximilian Street is remarkable for its breadth and architectural beauty. One of its most interesting edifices is the Fugger Haus, of which the entire front is painted in fresco. Among the public buildings of Augsburg most worthy of notice is the town-hall in Renaissance style, one of the finest in Germany, built by Elias Holl in 1616-1620. One of its rooms, called the “Golden Hall,” from the profusion of its gilding, is 113 ft. long, 59 broad and 53 high. The palace of the bishops, where the memorable Confession of Faith was presented to Charles V., is now used for government offices. Among the seventeen Reman Catholic churches and chapels, the cathedral, a basilica with two Romanesque towers, dates in its oldest portions from the 10th century. The church of St Ulrich and St Afra, built 1474-1500, is a Late Gothic edifice, with a nave of magnificent proportions and a tower 300 ft. high. The church stands on the spot where the first Christians of the district suffered martyrdom, and where a chapel was erected in the 6th century over the grave of St Afra. There are also a Protestant church, St Anne’s, a school of arts, a polytechnic institution, a picture gallery in the former monastery of St Catherine, a museum, observatory, botanical gardens, an exchange, gymnasium, deaf-mute institution, orphan asylum, several remarkable fountains dating from the 16th century, &c. Augsburg is particularly well provided with special and technical schools. The newer buildings, all in the modern west quarter of the city, include law courts, a theatre, and a municipal library with 200,000 volumes. The “Fuggerei,” built in 1519 by the brothers Fugger, is a miniature town, with six streets or alleys, three gates and a church, and consists of a hundred and six small houses let to indigent Roman Catholic citizens at a nominal rent. The manufactures of Augsburg are of great importance. It is the chief seat of the textile industry in south Germany, and its cloth, cotton goods and linen manufactories employ about 10,000 hands. It is also noted for its bleach and dye works, its engine works, foundries, paper factories, and production of silk goods, watches, jewelry, mathematical instruments, leather, chemicals, &c. Augsburg is also the centre of the acetylene gas industry of Germany. Copper-engraving, for which it was formerly noted, is no longer carried on; but printing, lithography and publishing have acquired a considerable development, one of the best-known Continental newspapers being the Allgemeine Zeitung or Augsburg Gazette. On the opposite side of the river, which is here crossed by a bridge, lies the township of Lechhausen.

Augsburg (the Augusta Vindelicorum of the Romans) derives its name from the Roman emperor Augustus, who, on the conquest of Rhaetia by Drusus, established here a Roman colony about 14 B.C. In the 5th century it was sacked by the Huns, and afterwards came under the power of the Frankish kings. It was almost entirely destroyed in the war of Charlemagne against Tassilo III., duke of Bavaria; and after the dissolution and division of that empire, it fell into the hands of the dukes of Swabia. After this it rose rapidly into importance as a manufacturing and commercial town, becoming, after Nuremberg, the centre of the trade between Italy and the north of Europe; its merchant princes, the Fuggers and Welsers, rivalled the Medici of Florence; but the alterations produced in the currents of trade by the discoveries of the 15th and 16th centuries occasioned a great decline. In 1276 it was raised to the rank of a free imperial city, which it retained, with many changes in its internal constitution, till 1806, when it was annexed to the kingdom of Bavaria. Meanwhile, it was the scene of numerous events of historical importance. It was besieged and taken by Gustavus Adolphus in 1632, and in 1635 it surrendered to the imperial forces; in 1703 it was bombarded by the electoral prince of Bavaria, and forced to pay a contribution of 400,000 dollars; and in the war of 1803 it suffered severely. Of its conventions the most memorable are those which gave birth to the Augsburg confession (1530) and to the Augsburg alliance (1686).

See Wagenseil, Geschichte der Stadt Augsburg (Augs., 1820-1822); Werner, Geschichte der Stadt Augsburg (1899); Roth, Augsburg’s Reformationsgeschichte (1902).

AUGSBURG, CONFESSION OF, the most important Protestant statement of belief drawn up at the Reformation. In summoning a diet for April 1530, Charles V. offered a fair hearing to all religious parties in the Empire. Luther, Justus Jonas, Melanchthon and Johann Bugenhagen were appointed to draw up a statement of the Saxon position. These “Torgau Articles” (March 1530) tell merely why Saxony had abolished certain ecclesiastical abuses. Melanchthon, however, soon found that, owing to attacks by Johann Eck of Ingolstadt (“404 Articles”), Saxony must state its position in doctrinal matters as well. Taking the Articles of Marburg (see Marburg, Colloquy of) and of Schwabach as the point of departure, he repudiated all connexion with heretics condemned by the ancient church. On the 11th of May he sent the draft to Luther, who approved it, adding that he himself “could not tread so softly and gently.” On the 23rd of June the Confession, originally intended as the statement of Electoral Saxony alone, was discussed and signed by a number of other Protestant princes and cities, and read before the diet on the 25th of June. Articles 1-21 attempt to show that the Evangelicals had deviated from current doctrine only in order to restore the pure and original teaching of the church. In spite of significant omissions (the sole authority of scripture; rejection of transubstantiation), the Confession contains nothing contradictory to Luther’s position, and in its emphasis on justification by faith alone enunciates a cardinal concept of the Evangelical churches. Articles 22-28 describe and defend the reformation of various “abuses.” On the 3rd of August, shorn of much of its original bitterness, the so-called Confutatio pontificia was read; it well expresses the views approved in substance by the emperor and all the Catholic party. In answer, Melanchthon was ordered to prepare an Apology of the Confession, which the emperor refused to receive; so Melanchthon enlarged it and published the editio princeps of both Confession and Apology in 1531.

As he felt free to make slight changes, the first edition does not represent the exact text of 1530; the edition of 1533 was further improved, while that of 1540, rearranged and in part rewritten, is known as the Variata. Dogmatic changes in this seem to have drawn forth no protest from Luther or Brenz, so Melanchthon made fresh alterations in 1542. Later, the Variata of 1540 became the creed of the Melanchthonians and even of the Crypto-calvinists; so the framers of the Formula of Concord, promulgated in 1580, returned to the text handed in at the Diet. By mistake they printed from a poor copy and not from the original, from which their German text varies at over 450 places. Their Latin text, that of Melanchthon’s editio princeps, is more nearly accurate. The textus receptus is that of the Formula of Concord, the divergent Latin and German forms being equally binding.

Acceptance of the Confession and Apology was made a condition of membership in the Schmalkalden League. The