Page:EB1911 - Volume 02.djvu/951

This page has been proofread, but needs to be validated.
903
AUGSBURG—AUGURS

Wittenberg Concord (1536) and the Articles of Schmalkalden (1537) reaffirmed them. The Confession was the ultimate source of much of the Thirty-nine Articles. The Religious Peace of Augsburg (1555) recognized no Protestants save adherents of the Confession; this was modified in 1648. To-day the Invariata is of symbolical authority among Lutherans generally, while the Variata is accepted by the Reformed churches of certain parts of Germany (see Löber, pp. 79-83.)

Editions of the received text: J. T. Müller, Die symbolischen Bücher der evangelisch-lutherischen Kirche (10th ed., Gütersloh, 1907), with a valuable historical introduction by Th. Kolde; Theodor Kolde, Die Augsburgische Konfession (Gotha, 1896), (contains also the Marburg, Schwabach and Torgau Articles, the Confutatio and the Variata of 1540). For translations of these, as well as of Zwingli’s Reckoning of his Faith, and of the Tetrapolitan Confession, see H. E. Jacobs, The Book of Concord (Philadelphia, 1882-83). The texts submitted to the emperor, lost before 1570, are reconstructed and compared with the textus receptus by P. Tschackert, Die unveränderte Augsburgische Konfession (Leipzig, 1901). For the genesis of the Confession, see Th. Kolde, Die älteste Redaktion der Augsburger Konfession (Gütersloh, 1906), also Kolde’s article, “Augsburger Bekenntnis,” in Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopädie (3rd ed., vol. ii., Leipzig, 1897). The standard commentary is still G. L. Plitt, Einleitung in die Augustana (Erlangen, 1867 ff.); compare also J. Ficker, Die Konfutation des Augsburgischen Bekenntnisses in ihrer ersten Gestalt (Leipzig, 1891); also A. Petzold, Die Konfutation des Vierstädtebekenntnisses (Leipzig, 1900). On its present use see G. Löber, Die im evangelischen Deutschland geltenden Ordinationsverpflichtungen geschichtlich geordnet (Leipzig, 1905), 79 ff.

 (W. W. R.*) 

AUGSBURG, WAR OF THE LEAGUE OF, the name applied to the European war of 1688-1697. The league of Augsburg was concluded on the 9th of July 1686 by the emperor, the elector of Brandenburg and other princes, against the French. Spain, Sweden, England and other non-German states joined the league, and formed the Grand Alliance by the treaty of Vienna (July 12, 1689). (See Grand Alliance, War of the.)

AUGURS, in ancient Rome, members of a religious college whose duty it was to observe and interpret the signs (auspices) of approval or disapproval sent by the gods in reference to any proposed undertaking. The augures were originally called auspices, but, while auspex[1] fell into disuse and was replaced by augur, auspicium was retained as the scientific term for the observation of signs.

The early history of the college is obscure. Its institution has been attributed to Romulus or Numa. It probably consisted originally of three members, of whom the king himself was one. This number was doubled by Tarquinius Priscus, but in 300 B.C. it was only four, two places, according to Livy (x. 6), being vacant. The Ogulnian law in the same year increased the number to nine, five plebeian being added to the four patrician members. In the time of Sulla the number was fifteen, which was increased to sixteen by Julius Caesar. This number continued in imperial times; the college itself was certainly in existence as late as the 4th century. The office of augur, which was bestowed only upon persons of distinguished merit and was much sought after by reason of its political importance, was held for life. Vacancies were originally filled by co-optation, but by the Domitian law (104) the selection was made, by seventeen out of the thirty-five tribes chosen by lot, from candidates previously nominated by the college. The insignia of office were the lituus, a staff free from knots and bent at the top, and the trabea, a kind of toga with bright scarlet stripes and a purple border. The science of augury was contained in various written works, which were consulted as occasion arose: such were the libri augurum, a manual of augural ritual, and the commentarii augurum, a collection of decrees or answers given by the college to the senate in certain definite cases.

The natural region to look to for signs of the will of Jupiter was the sky, where lightning and the flight of birds seemed directed by him as counsel to men. The latter, however, was the more difficult of interpretation, and upon it, therefore, mainly hinged the system of divination with which the augurs were occupied. It was the duty of the augur, before the auspices properly so called (those from the sky and from birds) were taken, to mark out with his staff the templum or consecrated space within which his observations were intended to be made. The method of procedure was as follows. At midnight, when the sky was clear and there was an absence of wind, the augur, in the presence of a magistrate, took up his position on a hill which afforded a wide view. After prayer and sacrifice, he marked out the templum both in the sky and on the ground and dedicated it. Within its limits he then pitched a tent, in which he sat down with covered head, asked the gods for a sign, and waited for an answer. As the augur looked south he had the east, the lucky quarter, on his left, and therefore signs on the left side were considered favourable, those on the right unfavourable. The practice was the reverse in Greece; the observers of signs looked towards the north, so that signs on the right were regarded as the favourable ones, and this is frequently adopted in the Roman poets. The augur afterwards announced the result of his observations in a set form of words, by which the magistrate was bound. Signs of the will of the gods were of two kinds, either in answer to a request (auspicia impetrativa), or incidental (auspicia oblativa). Of such signs there were five classes: (1) Signs in the sky (caelestia auspicia), consisting chiefly of thunder and lightning, but not excluding falling stars and other phenomena. Lightning from left to right was favourable, from right to left unfavourable; but on its mere appearance, in either direction, all business in the public assemblies was suspended for the day. Since the person charged to take the auspices for a certain day was constitutionally subject to no other authority who could test the truth or falsehood of his statement that he had observed lightning, this became a favourite device for putting off meetings of the public assembly. Restrictions were, however, imposed in later republican times. When a new consul, praetor or quaestor entered on his first day of office and prayed the gods for good omens, it was a matter of custom to report to him that lightning from the left had been seen. (2) Signs from birds (signa ex avibus), with reference to the direction of their flight, and also to their singing, or uttering other sounds. To the first class, called alites, belonged the eagle and the vulture; to the second, called oscines, the owl, the crow and the raven. The mere appearance of certain birds indicated good or ill luck, while others had a reference only to definite persons or events. In matters of ordinary life on which divine counsel was prayed for, it was usual to have recourse to this form of divination. For public affairs it was, by the time of Cicero, superseded by the fictitious observation of lightning. (3) Feeding of birds (auspicia ex tripudiis), which consisted in observing whether a bird—usually a fowl—on grain being thrown before it, let fall a particle from its mouth (tripudium sollistimum). If it did so, the will of the gods was in favour of the enterprise in question. The simplicity of this ceremony recommended it for very general use, particularly in the army when on service. The fowls were kept in cages by a servant, styled pullarius. In imperial times decuriales pullarii are mentioned. (4) Signs from animals (pedestria auspicia, or ex quadrupedibus), i.e. observation of the course of, or sounds uttered by, quadrupeds and reptiles within a fixed space, corresponding to the observations of the flight of birds, but much less frequently employed. It had gone out of use by the time of Cicero. (5) Warnings (signa ex diris), consisting of all unusual phenomena, but chiefly such as boded ill. Being accidental in their occurrence, they belonged to the auguria oblativa, and their interpretation was not a matter for the augurs, unless occurring in the course of some public transaction, in which case they formed a divine veto against it. Otherwise, reference was made for an interpretation to the pontifices in olden times, afterwards frequently to the Sibylline books, or the Etruscan haruspices, when the incident was not already provided for by a rule, as, for example, that it was unlucky for a person leaving his

  1. There is no doubt that auspex = avi-spex (“observer of birds”), but the derivation of augur is still unsettled. The following have been suggested: (1) augur (or augus) is a substantive originally meaning “increase” (related to augustus as robur to robustus), then transferred to the priest as the giver of increase or blessing; (2) = avi-gur, the second part of the word pointing to (a) garrire, “chatter,” or (b) gerere, the augur being conceived as “carrying” or guiding the flight of the birds; (3) from a lost verb augo = “tell,” “declare.” It is now generally agreed that the science of augury is of Italian, not Etruscan, origin.