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BAJOUR—BAKE

to include the Parkinsonia zone in the base of the overlying Bathonian (q.v.).

The Bajocian rocks of Europe are mostly limestones of various kinds, very frequently oolitic. At Bayeux, the type district, they are ferruginous oolites; in the Jura and Lorraine a coral limestone overlies a crinoidal variety; calcareous sandy and marly beds occur in Maine and Anjou; in Poitou the limestone is dolomitic and bears nodules of chert. Rocks of the same age, as recognized by their fossil contents, have a wide range; they are found in north Africa, Goa, Somaliland, German East Africa, and north-west Madagascar; through southern Europe they may be followed into Turkestan, and the Kota-Maleri beds of the Upper Gondwana series of India may possibly belong to this stage. In South America they appear in Bolivia, Chile and Argentina; in North America, in British Columbia, Dakota, Mexico, Oregon and California. The Bajocian sea also included parts of New South Wales, New Zealand (Flag Hills beds?), Borneo and Japan, and it extended into the polar region of eastern Greenland and Franz Josef Land.

In addition to the ammonites already mentioned, the large belemnites (Megateuthis giganteus) and terebratulas (T. perovalis) are worthy of notice; crinoids and corals were abundant, and so also were certain forms of Trigonia (T. costata), Pleurotomaria and Cidaris.

See Jurassic; also A. de Lapparent, Traité de géologie, vol. ii. (5th ed., 1906); and H. B. Woodward, “The Jurassic Rocks of Britain,” vol. iv., 1894 (Mem. Geol. Survey); both works contain references to original papers.

 (J. A. H.) 

BAJOUR, or Bajaur, a small district peopled by Pathan races of Afghan origin, in the North-West Frontier Province of India. It is about 45 m. long by 20. broad, and lies at a high level to the east of the Kunar valley, from which it is separated by a continuous line of rugged frontier hills, forming a barrier easily passable at one or two points. Across this barrier the old road from Kabul to India ran before the Khyber Pass was adopted as the main route. Bajour is inhabited almost exclusively by Tarkani (Tarkalanri) Pathans, sub-divided into Mamunds, Isazai, and Ismailzai, numbering together with a few Mohmands, Utmauzais, &c., about 100,000. To the south of Bajour is the wild mountain district of the Mohmands, a Pathan race. To the east, beyond the Panjkora river, are the hills of Swat, dominated by another Pathan race. To the north is an intervening watershed between Bajour and the small state of Dir; and it is over this watershed and through the valley of Dir that the new road from Malakand and the Punjab runs to Chitral. The drainage of Bajour flows eastwards, starting from the eastern slopes of the dividing ridge which overlooks the Kunar and terminating in the Panjkora river, so that the district lies on a slope tilting gradually downwards from the Kunar ridge to the Panjkora. Nawagai is the chief town of Bajour, and the khan of Nawagai is under British protection for the safeguarding of the Chitral road. Jandol, one of the northern valleys of Bajour, has ceased to be of political importance since the failure of its chief, Umra Khan, to appropriate to himself Bajour, Dir, and a great part of the Kunar valley. It was the active hostility between the amir of Kabul (who claimed sovereignty of the same districts) and Umra Khan that led, firstly to the demarcation agreement of 1893 which fixed the boundary of Afghanistan in Kunar; and, secondly, to the invasion of Chitral by Umra Khan (who was no party to the boundary settlement) and the siege of the Chitral fort in 1895.

An interesting feature in Bajour topography is a mountain spur from the Kunar range, which curving eastwards culminates in the well-known peak of Koh-i-Mor, which is visible from the Peshawar valley. It was here, at the foot of the mountain, that Alexander found the ancient city of Nysa and the Nysaean colony, traditionally said to have been founded by Dionysus. The Koh-i-Mor has been identified as the Meros of Arrian's history—the three-peaked mountain from which the god issued. It is also interesting to find that a section of the Kafir community of Kamdesh still claim the same Greek origin as did the Nysaeans; still chant hymns to the god who sprang from Gir Nysa (the mountain of Nysa); whilst they maintain that they originally migrated from the Swat country to their present habitat in the lower Bashgol. Long after Buddhism had spread to Chitral, Gilgit, Dir and Swat; whilst Ningrahar was still full of monasteries and temples, and the Peshawar valley was recognized as the seat of Buddhist learning, the Kafirs or Nysaeans held their own in Bajour and in the lower Kunar valley, where Buddhism apparently never prevailed. It is probable that the invader Baber (who has much to say about Bajour) fought them there in the early years of the 16th century, when on his way to found the Mogul dynasty of India centuries after Buddhism has been crushed in northern India by the destroyer Mahmud.

The Gazetteers and Reports of the Indian government contain nearly all the modern information available about Bajour. The autobiography of Baber (by Leyden and Erskine) gives interesting details about the country in the 16th century. For the connexion between the Kafirs and the ancient Nysaeans of Swat, see R. G. S. Journal, vol. vii., 1896.

 (T. H. H.*) 

BAJZA, JOSEPH (1804-1858), Hungarian poet and critic, was born at Szücsi in 1804. His earliest contributions were made to Kisfaludy's Aurora, a literary paper of which he was editor from 1830 to 1837. He also wrote largely in the Kritische Blätter, the Athenaeum, and the Figyelmezö or Observer. His criticisms on dramatic art were considered the best of these miscellaneous writings. In 1830 he published translations of some foreign dramas, Ausländische Bühna, and in 1835 a collection of his own poems. In 1837 he was made director of the newly established national theatre at Pest. He then, for some years, devoted himself to historical writing, and published in succession the Historical Library (Törtereti Könyvtár), 6 vols., 1843-1845; the Modern Plutarch (Uj Plutarch), 1845-1847; and the Universal History (Világtörétet), 1847. These works are to some extent translations from German authors. In 1847 Bajza edited the journal of the opposition, Ellenör, at Leipzig, and in March 1848 Kossuth made him editor of his paper, Kossuth Hirlapja. In 1850 he was attacked with brain disease and died in 1858.

BAKALAI (Bakalé, Bangouens), a Bantu negroid tribe inhabiting a wide tract of French Congo between the river Ogowé and 2° S. They appear to be immigrants from the south-east, and have been supposed to be connected racially with the Galoa, one of the Mpongwe tribes and the chief river-people of the Ogowé. The Bakalai have suffered much from the incursions of their neighbours the Fang, also arrivals from the south-east, and it may be that they migrated to their present abode under pressure from this people at an earlier date. They are keen hunters and were traders in slaves and rubber; the slave traffic has been prohibited by the French authorities. Their women display considerable ingenuity in dressing their hair, often taking a whole day to arrange a coiffure; the hair is built up on a substructure of clay and a good deal of false hair incorporated; a coat of red, green or yellow pigment often completes the effect. The same colours are used to decorate the hut doors. The villages, some of which are fortified with palisades, are usually very dirty; chiefs and rich men own plantations which are situated at some distance from the village and to which their womenfolk are sent in times of war. The Bakalai of Lake Isanga cremate their dead; those of the Upper Ogowé throw the bodies into the river, with the exception of those killed in war. The body of a chief is placed secretly in a hut erected in the depths of the forest, and the village is deserted for that night, in some cases altogether; the slaves of the deceased are (or were) sacrificed, and his wives scourged and secluded in huts for a week. “Natural” deaths are attributed to the machinations of a sorcerer, and the poison-ordeal is often practised. Of their social organization little is known, but it appears that nearly all individuals refrain from eating the flesh of some particular animal.

BAKE, JAN (1787-1864), Dutch philologist and critic, was born at Leiden on the 1st of September 1787, and from 1817 to 1854 he was professor of Greek and Roman literature at the university. He died on the 26th of March 1864. His principal works are:—Posidonii Rhodii Reliquiae Doctrinae (1810); Cleomedis Circularis Doctrina de Sublimitate (1820); Bibliotheca