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school of seamanship. Its industries comprise iron-founding, ship-building, brewing, and the manufacture of cigars, leather and tinned fish. There is an active export trade in grain.

BARTHÉLEMY, ANATOLE JEAN-BAPTISTE ANTOINE DE (1821-1904), French archaeologist and numismatist, was born at Reims on the 1st of July 1821, and died at Ville d'Avray on the 27th of June 1904. In collaboration with J. Geslin de Bourgogne he published Études sur la révolution en Bretagne in 1858, and between 1855 and 1879 an exhaustive work in six volumes on the Anciens évêchés de Bretagne; histoire et monuments. In 1880 appeared the Choix de documents inédits sur l'histoire de la ligue en Bretagne, by himself alone. But it was, above all, his numismatical work which established his reputation. This included several popular publications, such as the Nouveau manuel complet de numismatique ancienne (1851; second edition, revised, 1890), and the Nouveau manuel complet de numismatique du moyen âge et moderne (1853; new edition revised by Adrien Planchet), and a large number of monographs and articles in the technical reviews. The following may be specially mentioned: Numismatique mérovingienne (1865); Essai sur la monnaie parisis (1874); Note sur l'origine de la monnaie tournoise (1896); and in the series of instructions issued by the Comité des travaux historiques et scientifiques he edited the number on La Numismatique de la France (1891). In 1897 he was elected a member of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-lettres.

His younger brother, Édouard Marie, comte de Barthélemy, who was born in Angers in 1830, has published a number of documents upon the ancient French nobility and upon the history of Champagne.

BARTHÉLEMY, AUGUSTE MARSEILLE (1796-1867), French satirical poet, was born at Marseilles in 1796. His name can hardly be separated from that of his friend and compatriot, J. P. A. Méry (1798-1866), with whom he carried on so intimate a collaboration that it is not possible to distinguish their personalities in their joint works. After having established some local reputation as a poet, Barthélemy went to Paris, where by one of his first efforts, Le Sacre de Charles X (1825) he gained the favour of the court. His energies, however, were soon enlisted in the service of the opposition party. In 1825 appeared a clever political satire, Les Sidiennes, followed by La Villéliade ou la prise du château de Rivoli (1827), La Corbiéréide (1827), La Peyronnéide (1827), the joint productions of Barthélemy and Méry. The success was immediate and pronounced; fifteen editions of the Villéliade were called for during the year. A rapid succession of political squibs and satires was now poured forth by the authors, among the most remarkable being Biographie des quarante de l'académie française (1826) and Napoléon en Égypte (1828), which passed through nearly a dozen editions in a year. In 1829 Barthélemy was imprisoned and fined 1000 francs for the publication of their Fils de l'homme, a poem on the duke of Reichstadt, Napoleon's son. The Revolution of 1830 liberated him; and in company with Méry, he celebrated the triumph of the people in one of their most brilliant efforts, L'Insurrection. From March 1831 to April 1832 they produced a series of verse satires issued weekly, the Némésis, attacking the government and ministers of Louis Philippe. The small pension of which Barthélemy was the recipient was stopped. When the publication ceased there was a strong suspicion that Barthélemy had been paid for his silence. In 1832 he published an anonymous poem, supporting some acts of the government which were peculiarly obnoxious to the Liberal party. This change of front destroyed his influence and his later writings passed unnoticed. For the next few years he enjoyed a handsome pension from the government and refrained from all satirical writing. He again resumed his old style in 1844 but without the former success. From that date he contented himself with merely occasional poems. Barthélemy died on the 23rd of August 1867 at Marseilles. Joseph Méry was an ardent romanticist and wrote a great number of stories now forgotten. He produced several pieces at the Paris theatres, and also collaborated with Gérard de Nerval in adaptations from Shakespeare and in other plays. He received a pension from Napoleon III. and died in Paris on the 16th of June 1866.

The Œuvres of Barthélemy and Méry were collected, with a notice by L. Reybaud, in 1831 (4 vols.). See also Barthélemy et Méry étudiés spécialement dans leurs rapports avec la légende napoléonienne, by Jules Garsou in vol. lviii. of the Mémoires of the Académie Royale ... de Belgique, which contains full information on both authors.

BARTHÉLEMY, FRANÇOIS, Marquis de (1747 or 1750-1830), French politician, was educated by his uncle the abbé Jean Jacques Barthélemy for a diplomatic career, and after serving as secretary of legation in Sweden, in Switzerland and in England, was appointed minister plenipotentiary in Switzerland, in which capacity he negotiated the treaties of Basel with Prussia and Spain (1795). Elected a member of the Directory in May 1797, through royalist influence, he was arrested at the coup d'état of the 18 Fructidor (17th of September 1797) and deported to French Guiana, but escaped and made his way to the United States and then to England. He returned to France after the 18 Brumaire, entered the senate in February 1800 and contributed to the establishment of the consulship for life and the empire. In 1814 he abandoned Napoleon, took part in the drawing up of the constitutional charter and was named peer of France. During the Hundred Days he lived in concealment, and after the second Restoration obtained the title marquis, and in 1819 introduced a motion in the chamber of peers tending to render the electoral law more aristocratic.

His Papiers have been published by J. Kaulek, 4 vols. (Paris, 1886-1888). See A. Sorel, L'Europe et la Révolution française, iv. (Paris, 1892); L. Sciout, Le Directoire (Paris, 1895).

BARTHÉLEMY, JEAN JACQUES (1716-1795) French writer and numismatist, was born on the 20th of January 1716 at Cassis, in Provence. He was educated first at the college of the Oratory in Marseilles, and afterwards at that of the Jesuits in the same city. While studying for the priesthood, which he intended to join, he devoted much attention to oriental languages, and was introduced by his friend M. Gary of Marseilles to the study of classical antiquities, particularly in the department of numismatics. In 1744 he went to Paris with a letter of introduction to M. Gros de Boze, perpetual secretary of the Academy of Inscriptions and Belles-lettres and keeper of the royal collection of medals. He became assistant to de Boze, on whose death (1753) he became keeper of the medals. In 1755 he accompanied the French ambassador, M. de Stainville, afterwards duc de Choiseul, to Italy, where he spent three years in archaeological research. Choiseul had a great regard for Barthélemy, and on his return to France, Barthélemy became an inmate of his house, and received valuable preferments from his patron. In 1789, after the publication of his Voyage du jeune Anacharsis, he was elected a member of the French Academy. During the Revolution Barthélemy was arrested as an aristocrat. The Committee of Public Safety, however, were no sooner informed by the duchess of Choiseul of the arrest, than they gave orders for his immediate release, and in 1793 he was nominated librarian of the Bibliothèque Nationale. He refused this post but resumed his old functions as keeper of medals, and enriched the national collection by many valuable accessions. Barthélemy died on the 30th of April 1795.

Barthélemy was the author of a number of learned works on antiquarian subjects, but the great work on which his fame rests is Voyage du jeune Anacharsis en Grèce, vers le milieu du quatrième siècle avant l'ère chrétienne (4 vols., 1787). He had begun it in 1757 and had been working on it for thirty years. The hero, a young Scythian descended from the famous philosopher Anacharsis, is supposed to repair to Greece for instruction in his early youth, and after making the tour of her republics, colonies and islands, to return to his native country and write this book in his old age, after the Macedonian hero had overturned the Persian empire. In the manner of modern travellers, he gives an account of the customs, government and antiquities of the country he is supposed to have visited; a copious introduction supplies whatever may be wanting in respect to historical details; whilst various dissertations on the music of the Greeks, on the literature of the Athenians, and on the economy, pursuits, ruling passions, manners and customs of the surrounding states supply ample