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information on the subjects of which they treat. Modern scholarship has superseded most of the details in the Voyage, but the author himself did not imagine his book to be a register of accurately ascertained facts; he rather intended to afford to his countrymen, in an interesting form, some knowledge of Greek civilization. The Charicles of W. A. Becker is an attempt in a similar direction, but, though superior in scholarship, it wants the charm of style of the Anacharsis.

Barthélemy's correspondence with Paolo Paciaudi, chiefly on antiquarian subjects, was edited with the Correspondance inédite du comte de Caylus in 1877 by Ch. Nisard; his letters to the comte de Caylus were published by Antoine Serieys as Voyage en Italie (1801); and his letters to Mme du Deffand, with whom he was on intimate terms, in the Correspondance complète de Mme du Deffand avec la duchesse de Choiseul, l'abbé Barthélemy et M. Craufurt (3 vols., 1866), edited by the marquis de Sainte-Aulaire. See also Mémoires sur la vie de l'abbé Barthélemy, écrits par lui-même (1824), with a notice by Lalande. His Œuvres complètes (4 vols. 1821), contain a notice by Villenave.

BARTHÉLEMY SAINT-HILAIRE, JULES (1805-1895), French philosopher and statesman, was born at Paris on the 19th of August 1805. In his early years he was an active political journalist, and from 1826 to 1830 opposed the reactionary policy of the king in Le Globe. At the revolution of 1830 he signed the protestation of the journalists on the 28th of July 1830. After 1830 he contributed to different newspapers—Le Constitutionnel, Le National and the Courrier français—until 1833, when he gave up politics in order to devote himself to the history of ancient philosophy, undertaking a translation of Aristotle, which occupied him the greater part of his life (1837-1892). The reputation which he gained from this work won for him the chair of ancient philosophy at the Collège de France (1838) and a seat at the Academy of Moral and Political Science (1839). After the revolution of 1848 he was elected as a republican deputy; but was obliged to withdraw after the coup d'état of Louis Napoleon. In 1855 he went as member of the international commission to Egypt to report on the possibility of the proposed Suez canal, and by the articles which he wrote he contributed largely to making the project popular in France. Elected deputy again in 1869, he joined the opposition to the Empire, and in 1871 bent all his efforts to the election of Thiers as president of the republic, acting afterwards as his secretary. Appointed senator for life in 1875, he took his place among the moderate republicans, and from September 1880 to November 1881 was minister of foreign affairs in the cabinet of Jules Ferry. The most important event of his administration was the annexation of Tunis under the form of a French protectorate, which he actively promoted. He died on the 24th of November 1895. His principal works, besides the translation of Aristotle and a number of studies connected with the same subject, are Des Védas (1854), Du Bouddhisme (1856) and Mahomet et le Coran (1865).

BARTHEZ, or Barthès, PAUL JOSEPH (1734-1806), French physician, was born on the 11th of December 1734 at Montpellier. He was educated at Narbonne and Toulouse, and began the study of medicine at Montpellier in 1750, taking his doctor's degree in 1753. In 1756 he obtained the appointment of physician to the military hospital in Normandy attached to the army of observation commanded by Marshal d'Estrées, but a severe attack of hospital fever compelled him to leave this post. In 1757 his services were required in the medical staff of the army of Westphalia, where he had the rank of consulting physician, and on his return to Paris he acted as joint editor of the Journal des savants and the Encyclopédie méthodique. In 1759 he obtained a medical professorship at Montpellier, and in 1774 he was created joint chancellor of the university. In 1778 he published his most famous work, Nouveaux élémens de la science de l'homme, in which he employs the expression "vital principle" as a convenient term for the cause of the phenomena of life, without committing himself to either a spiritualistic or a materialistic view of its nature. Taking the degree of doctor of civil law in 1780, he secured the appointment of counsellor to the Supreme Court of Aids at Montpellier, but he soon took up his residence in Paris, having been nominated consulting physician to the king.

On the outbreak of the French Revolution he lost much of his fortune and retired to Carcassonne, where he devoted himself to the study of theoretical medicine. It was from this retreat that he gave to the world his Nouvelle mécanique des mouvemens de l'homme et des animaux, which appeared in 1798. In 1802 he published his Traitement des maladies goutteuses, and he afterwards occupied himself in preparing for the press a new edition of his Élémens de la science de l'homme, of which he just lived to see the publication. His health had been declining for some years before his death, which took place soon after his removal to Paris, on the 15th of October 1806. He bequeathed his books and manuscripts to J. Lordat, who published two volumes of his Consultations de médecine in 1810. His Traité du beau was also published posthumously in 1807.

BARTHOLINUS, GASPARD [Caspar Berthelsen], (1585-1629), physician, was born in 1585 at Malmö, in Sweden. His precocity was extraordinary; at three years of age he was able to read, and in his thirteenth year he composed Greek and Latin orations and delivered them in public. When he was about eighteen he went to the university of Copenhagen and afterwards studied at Rostock and Wittenberg. He then travelled through Germany, the Netherlands, England, France and Italy, and was received with marked respect at the different universities he visited. In 1613 he was chosen professor of medicine in the university of Copenhagen, and filled that office for eleven years, when, falling into a dangerous illness, he made a vow that if he should recover he would apply himself solely to the study of divinity. He fulfilled his vow by becoming professor of divinity at Copenhagen and canon of Roskilde. He died on the 13th of July 1629 at Sorö in Zeeland.

Of his sons, Thomas (1616-1680) was born at Copenhagen, where, after a long course of study in various universities of Europe, he was appointed successively professor of mathematics (1647) and anatomy (1648). During his tenure of the latter chair he distinguished himself by observations on the lymphatics. In 1661 he retired to Hagestaed. In 1670 his house and library were burnt, and in consideration of his loss he was appointed physician to the king, with a handsome salary, and librarian to the university of Copenhagen. He died at Hagestaed in 1680. Another son, Erasmus (1625-1698), born at Roskilde, spent ten years in visiting England, Holland, Germany and Italy, and filled the chairs of mathematics and medicine at Copenhagen. He discovered double refraction in Iceland spar (Experimenta crystalli islandici disdiaclastici, Copenhagen, 1669). He died at Copenhagen in 1698. In the third generation Caspar Thomeson (1655-1738), son of Thomas, also taught anatomy at Copenhagen, his name being associated with the description of one of the ducts of the sublingual gland and of the glandulae Bartholini, while his younger brother, Thomas (1659-1690), was a student of northern antiquities who published Antiquitatum Danicarum libri tres in 1689.

BARTHOLOMEW, SAINT, one of the twelve apostles, regarding whose early life we know nothing, unless in accordance with a widely-spread belief he is to be identified with Nathanael (q.v.). If so, Bartholomew is probably a patronymic, the apostle's full name being Nathanael Bartolmai, i.e. the son of Tolmai. On the other hand, according to a Syrian tradition, Bartholomew's original name was Jesus, which he dropped owing to its being the name of the Master Himself. In the synoptic gospels Bartholomew is never mentioned except in the lists of the apostles, where his name always appears after Philip's. He is said to have gone, after the ascension of the Lord, on a missionary tour to India (then a very wide geographical designation) where, according to a story in Eusebius (H.E. v. 10), he left behind him a copy of St Matthew's gospel. According to the traditional account he was flayed alive and then crucified with his head downwards, at Albanopolis in Armenia, or, according to Nicephorus, at Urbanopolis in Cilicia. In works of art he is generally represented with a large knife, the instrument of his martyrdom, or, as in Michelangelo's "Last Judgment," with his own skin hanging over his arm. The festival of St Bartholomew is celebrated on the 24th of August.