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CAMPE—CAMPER

CAMPE, JOACHIM HEINRICH (1746–1818), German educationist, was born at Deensen in Brunswick in 1746. He studied theology at the university of Halle, and after acting for some time as chaplain at Potsdam, he accepted a post as director of studies in the Philanthropin at Dessau (see Basedow). He soon after set up an educational establishment of his own at Trittow, near Hamburg, which he was obliged to give up to one of his assistants within a few years, in consequence of feeble health. In 1787 he proceeded to Brunswick as counsellor of education, and purchased the Schulbuchhandlung, which under his direction became a most prosperous business. He died in 1818. His numerous educational works were widely used throughout Germany. Among the most popular were the Kleine Kinderbibliothek (11th ed., 1815); Robinson der Jüngere (59th ed., 1861), translated into English and into nearly every European language; and Sämmtliche Kinder- und Jugendschriften, 37 vols.


CAMPECHE (Campeachy), a southern state of Mexico, comprising the western part of the peninsula of Yucatan, bounded N. and E. by Yucatan, S. by Guatemala, S.W. by Tabasco and N.W. by that part of the Gulf of Mexico designated on English maps as the Bay of Campeachy. Pop. (1895) 87,264; (1900) 86,542, mostly Indians and mestizos. Area, 18,087 sq. m. The name of the state is derived from its principal forest product, palo de campeche (logwood). The surface, like that of Yucatan, consists of a vast sandy plain, broken by a group of low elevations in the north, heavily forested in the south, but with open tracts in the north adapted to grazing. The northern part is insufficiently watered, the rains filtering quickly through the soil. In the south, however, there are some large rivers, and the forest region is very humid. The climate is hot and unhealthy. In the north-west angle of the state is the Laguna de Términos, a large tide-water lake, which receives the drainage of the southern districts. Among the products and exports are logwood, fustic, lignum-vitae, mahogany, cedar, hides, tortoiseshell and chicle, the last extracted from the zapote chico trees (Achras sapota, L.). Stock-raising engages some attention. One railway crosses the state from the capital, Campeche, to Merida, Yucatan, but there are no other means of transportation except the rivers and mule-paths. The port of Carmen (pop. in 1900, about 6000), on a sand key between the Laguna de Términos and the Gulf, has an active trade in dyewoods and other forest products, and owing to its inland water communications with the forest areas of the interior is the principal port of the state and of Tabasco.


CAMPECHE, or Campeche de Baranda, a fortified city and port of Mexico, and capital of a state of the same name, situated on the Bay of Campeche, 825 m. E. of the city of Mexico and 90 m. S.W. of Merida, in lat. 20° 5′ N., long. 90° 16′ W. Pop. (1900) 17,109. Campeche was one of the three open ports of this coast under the Spanish régime, and its walls, general plan, fine public edifices, shady squares and comfortable stone residences are evidence of the wealth it once possessed. It is still one of the most attractive towns on the Gulf coast of Mexico. It had a monopoly of the Yucatan trade and enjoyed large profits from its logwood exports, both of which have been largely lost. It was formerly the principal port for the state and for a part of Yucatan, but the port of Carmen at the entrance to Laguna de Términos is now the chief shipping port for logwood and other forest products, and a considerable part of the trade of Campeche has been transferred to Progreso, the port of Merida. The port of Campeche is a shallow roadstead defended by three forts and protected by a stone pier or wharf 160 ft. long, but vessels drawing more than 9 ft. are compelled to lie outside and discharge cargo into lighters. The exports include logwood, cotton, hides, wax, tobacco, salt and cigars of local manufacture. The principal public buildings are the old citadel, some old churches, the town hall, a handsome theatre, hospital and market. The streets are traversed by tramways, and a railway runs north-eastward to Merida. Campeche stands on the site of an old native town, of which there are interesting remains in the vicinity, and which was first visited by Hernández de Córdoba in 1517. The Spanish town was founded in 1540, and was sacked by the British in 1659 and by buccaneers in 1678 and 1685. During the revolution of 1842 Campeche was the scene of many engagements between the Mexicans and people of Yucatan.


CAMPEGGIO, LORENZO (1464–1539), Italian cardinal, was born at Milan of a noble Bolognese family. At first he followed a legal career at Pavia and Bologna, and when in 1499 he took his doctorate he was esteemed the most learned canonist in Europe. In 1500 he married Francesca de’ Gualtavillani, by whom he had five children, one of whom, Allessandro, born in 1504, became cardinal in 1551, and another, Gianbaptista, became bishop of Minorca. His wife dying in 1510, he went into the church; on account of his services during the rebellion of Bologna, he was made by Julius II. auditor of the Rota in 1511, and sent to Maximilian and to Vienna as nuncio. Raised to the see of Feltre in 1512, he went on another embassy to Maximilian in 1513, and was created cardinal priest of San Tommaso in Pavione, 27th of June 1517. Leo X., needing a subsidy from the English clergy, sent Campeggio to England on the ostensible business of arranging a crusade against the Turks. Wolsey, then engaged in beginning his reform of the English church, procured that he himself should be joined to the legation as senior legate; thus the Italian, who arrived in England on the 23rd of July 1518, held a subordinate position and his special legatine faculties were suspended. Campeggio’s mission failed in its immediate object; but he returned to Rome, where he was received in Consistory on the 28th of November 1519, with the gift from the king of the palace of Cardinal Adriano Castellesi (q.v.), who had been deposed, and large gifts of money and furniture. He was made protector of England in the Roman curia; and in 1524 Henry VIII. gave him the rich see of Salisbury, and the pope the archbishopric of Bologna. After attending the diet of Regensburg, he shared the captivity of Clement VII. during the sack of Rome in 1527 and did much to restore peace. On the 1st of October 1528 he arrived in England as co-legate with Wolsey in the matter of Henry’s divorce. He brought with him a secret document, the Decretal, which defined the law and left the legates to decide the question of fact; but this important letter was to be shown only to Henry and Wolsey. “Owing to recent events,” that is, the loss of the temporal power, Clement was in no way inclined to offend the victorious Charles V., Catherine’s nephew, and Campeggio had already received (16th of September 1528) distinct instructions “not to proceed to sentence under any pretext without express commission, but protract the matter as long as possible.” After using all means of persuasion to restore peace between the king and queen, Campeggio had to resist the pressure brought upon him to give sentence. The legatine court opened at Blackfriars on the 18th of June 1529, but the final result was certain. Campeggio could not by the terms of his commission give sentence; so his only escape was to prorogue the court on the 23rd of July on the plea of the Roman vacation. Having failed to satisfy the king, he left England on the 26th of October 1529, after his baggage had been searched at Dover to find the Decretal, which, however, had been burnt. Returning to Bologna, the cardinal assisted at the coronation of Charles V. on the 24th of February 1530, and went with him to the diet of Augsburg. He was deprived by Henry of the English protectorate; and when sentence was finally given against the divorce, Campeggio was deprived of the see of Salisbury as a non-resident alien, by act of parliament (11th of March 1535); but his rich benefices in the Spanish dominions made ample amends. In 1537 he became cardinal bishop of Sabina, and died in Rome on the 25th of July 1539. His tomb is in the church of S. Maria in Trastevere.  (E. Tn.) 


CAMPER, PETER (1722–1789), Dutch anatomist and naturalist, was born at Leiden on the 11th of May 1722. He was educated at the university there, and in 1746 graduated in philosophy and medicine. After the death of his father in 1748 he spent more than a year in England, and then visited Paris, Lyons and Geneva, and returned to Franeker, where in 1750 he had been appointed to the professorship of philosophy, medicine