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and surgery. He visited England a second time in 1752, and in 1755 he was called to the chair of anatomy and surgery at the Athenaeum in Amsterdam. He resigned this post after six years, and retired to his country house near Franeker, in order uninterruptedly to carry on his studies. In 1763, however, he accepted the professorship of medicine, surgery and anatomy at Groningen, and continued in the chair for ten years. He then returned to Franeker, and after the death of his wife in 1776 spent some time in travelling. In 1762 he had been returned as one of the deputies in the assembly of the province of Friesland, and the latter years of his life were much occupied with political affairs. In 1787 he was nominated to a seat in the council of state, and took up his residence at the Hague, where he died on the 7th of April 1789.

Camper’s works, mainly memoirs and detached papers, are very numerous; the most important of those bearing on comparative anatomy were published in 3 vols. at Paris in 1803, under the title Œuvres de P. Camper qui ont pour objet l’histoire naturelle, la physiologie, et l’anatomie comparée. His Dissertation physique sur les différences réelles que présentent les traits du visage chez les hommes de différents pays et de différents âges; sur le beau qui caractérise les statues antiques et les pièces gravées, &c., which was published in 1781 both in Dutch and in French, contains an account of the facial angle which he used as a cranial characteristic. (See also Anatomy.)

CAMPHAUSEN, OTTO VON (1812–1896), Prussian statesman, was born at Hünshoven in the Rhine Provinces on the 21st of October 1812. Having studied jurisprudence and political economy at the universities of Bonn, Heidelberg, Munich and Berlin, he entered the legal career at Cologne, and immediately devoted his attention to financial and commercial questions. Nominated assessor in 1837, he acted for five years in this capacity at Magdeburg and Coblenz, became in 1845 counsellor in the ministry of finance, and was in 1849 elected a member of the second chamber of the Prussian diet, joining the Moderate Liberal party. In 1869 he was appointed minister of finance. On taking office, he was confronted with a deficit in the revenue, which he successfully cleared off by effecting a conversion of a greater part of the state loans. The French war indemnity enabled him to redeem a considerable portion of the state debt and to remit certain taxes. He was, however, a too warm adherent of free trade principles to enjoy the confidence either of the Agrarian party or of Prince Bismarck, and his antagonism to the tobacco monopoly and the general economic policy of the latter brought about his retirement. Camphausen’s great services to Prussia were recognized by his sovereign in the bestowal of the order of the Black Eagle in 1895, a dignity carrying with it a patent of nobility. He died at Berlin on the 18th of May 1896.

CAMPHAUSEN, WILHELM (1818–1885), German painter, was born at Düsseldorf, and studied under A. Rethel and F. W. von Schadow. As an historical and battle painter he rapidly became popular, and in 1859 was made professor of painting at the Düsseldorf academy, together with other later distinctions. His “Flight of Tilly” (1841), “Prince Eugene at the Battle of Belgrade” (1843; in the Cologne museum), “Flight of Charles II. after the Battle of Worcester” (Berlin National Gallery), “Cromwell’s Cavalry” (Munich Pinakothek), are his principal earlier pictures; and his “Frederick the Great at Potsdam,” “Frederick II. and the Bayreuth Dragoons at Hohenfriedburg,” and pictures of the Schleswig-Holstein campaign and the war of 1866 (notably “Lines of Düppel after the Battle,” at the Berlin National Gallery), made him famous in Germany as a representative of patriotic historical art. He also painted many portraits of German princes and celebrated soldiers and statesmen. He died at Düsseldorf on the 16th of June 1885.

CAMPHORS, organic chemical compounds, the alcohols and ketones of the hydrocarbons known as terpenes, occurring associated with volatile oils in many plants. They are extracted together with volatile oils by distilling certain plants with steam, the volatile oils being subsequently separated by fractional distillation. The term “camphor” is generally applied to the solid products so obtained, and hence includes the “stearoptenes,” or solid portions of the volatile oils. They are mostly white crystalline solids, possessing a characteristic odour; they are sparingly soluble in water, but readily dissolve in alcohol and ether. Chemically, the camphors may be divided into two main groups, according to the nature of the corresponding hydrocarbon or terpene. In this article only the camphors of commercial importance will be treated; details as to the chemical structure, syntheses and relations will be found in the article Terpenes.

Menthol, mentha or peppermint camphor, C10H19OH, 5-methyl-2-isopropyl hexahydrophenol, an oxyhexahydrocymene, occurs in the volatile oils of Mentha piperita and M. arvensis (var. piperascens and glabrata), from which it is obtained by cooling and subsequently pressing the separated crystals; or by fractional distillation. It crystallizes in prisms, having the odour and taste of peppermint; it melts at 42° and boils at 212°. It is very slightly soluble in water, but readily dissolves in alcohol and ether. It is optically active, being laevo-rotatory. Menthol is used in medicine to relieve pain, as in rheumatism, neuralgia, throat affections and toothache. It acts also as a local anaesthetic, vascular stimulant and disinfectant.

Thymol, thyme camphor, C10H13OH, 3-methyl-6-isopropyl phenol, an oxycymene, occurs in the volatile oil of Ajowan, Carum ajowan, garden thyme, Thymus vulgaris, wild thyme, T. Serpyllum and horse mint, Monarda punctata. Thymol crystallizes in large colourless plates which melt at 44° and boil at 230°. It has the odour of thyme, is sparingly soluble in water, but very soluble in alcohol, ether and in alkaline solutions. In medicine it is used as an antiseptic, being more active than phenol. Iodine and potash convert it into di-iodthymol, which has been introduced in surgery under the names aristol and annidalin, as a substitute for iodoform.

Borneol, Borneo camphor or camphol, also known as Malayan, Barus or Dryobalanops camphor, C10H17OH, occurs in fissures in the wood of Dryobalanops aromatica, a majestic tree flourishing in the East Indies. This product is dextro-rotatory; the laevo and inactive modifications occur in the so-called baldrianic camphor. Borneol melts at 203° and boils at 212°. It is very similar to common or Japan camphor, but has a somewhat peppery odour. Sodium and alcohol reduce common camphor to a mixture of d- and l-borneol.

Common camphor, Japan or Laurel camphor, C10H16O, which constitutes the bulk of the camphor of commerce, is the product of the camphor laurel, Cinnamonum camphora, a tree flourishing in Japan, Formosa and central China. It also occurs in various volatile oils, e.g. lavender, rosemary, sage and spike. To extract the camphor, chips of the tree are steamed, and the mixed vapours of camphor, volatile oils and water are conducted to a condensing plant, where most of the camphor separates out. This is filtered, and the remainder, about 20% of the total, which is retained in solution, is extracted by fractional distillation and cooling the distillate. The crude camphor so obtained is exported from Japan in two grades—Samuel A and Samuel B. It is purified by mixing with a little charcoal, sand, iron filings or quicklime and subliming, by steam distillation or by crystallization. Common camphor forms a translucent mass of hexagonal prisms, melting at 175° and boiling at 204°. It sublimes very readily. In alcoholic solution it is dextro-rotatory; the laevo form, Matricaria camphor, occurs in the oil of Matricaria parthenium and closely resembles the d form. Camphor is chiefly used in the celluloid industry. The so-called “artificial camphor” is pinene hydrochloride (see Terpenes).

Externally applied it acts medicinally as a counter-irritant, and, in some degree, as a local anaesthetic, being also a definite antiseptic. It is, therefore, largely used in liniments for the relief of myalgia, sciatica, lumbago, etc. Combined with chloroform, thymol or carbolic acid, it is a valuable local application for neuralgia and for toothache due to dental caries. Taken internally, camphor is a nerve stimulant, a diaphoretic and a feeble antipyretic. It is excreted by the kidneys as various substances, including campho-glycuric acid (Schmiedeberg). In large doses it causes marked nervous symptoms, exhilaration being followed by abdominal pain, violent epileptiform convulsions, coma and death. Its internal uses are in hysteria, and